Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With THOMSON REUTERS(ESCI)
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ISSN: 0974-438X
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RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Ms. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

Mr. Ramesh Modi

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Responsible Leadership Style and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Relationship Study.

Author

Divya Jyoti Thakur

Research Scholar

Faculty of Management Sciences and Liberal Arts.

Shoolini University, Solan H.P.

Dr. Dipanker Sharma

Associate Professor

Faculty of Management Sciences and Liberal Arts.

Shoolini University, Solan H.P.

Abstract

Leaders are recognized for the influence they are able to create on their followers. Leaders influence the action and behavior of their followers. This study has been undertaken to understand the relationship between Responsible leadership style and organizational citizenship behavior. A Sample of 121 employees working in pharmaceutical firms was included in the study. The study variables were measured on a metric scale. Suitable statistical techniques were applied on the collected data. The results revealed that there is no difference in study variables with respect to demographic characteristics of the sample. A positive correlation has been found between responsible leadership style and all the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior except courtesy. Limitations and future scope of the study has been highlighted.

Civic virtue, sportsmanship, helping others, courtesy, consciousness, responsible leader.

Introduction

A leader is ‘‘someone who occupies a position in a group, influences others in accordance with the role expectation of the position, and co-ordinates and directs the group in maintaining itself and reaching its goal’’ (Raven and Rubin 1976, p. 37). Organizations and their leaders are increasingly including a broader group of stakeholders in their planning and decision- making. There in arises the need of responsible leader. Responsible leader has been defined as one who creates a culture of inclusion built on solid moral ground (Pless and Maak 2004). A responsible leader must incorporate ethics, corporate responsibility, and conscious and conscientious stakeholder relations (Doh and Stumpf 2005). Employees are a critical stakeholder group—with its leaders and their collective actions serving as the model of behavior employees are expected to follow. Responsible leadership is an inclusive concept whereby employees perceive their organization as having an ethical and proactive stakeholder perspective toward constituents outside the organization and the employees themselves. As leaders are adept at leading and motivating subordinates and play irreplaceable roles in supporting and shaping employees’ willingness to perform extra-role behaviors (Ramus 2001, Ramus & Steger, 2000), leadership has been recognized as an essential factor in determining employee organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In particular, responsible leadership, which requires leaders to be morally conscious toward the stakeholders inside and outside of the corporation, has been theorized and interpreted as an effective antecedent of employee OCB. Because employees are critical internal stakeholders, responsible leadership can raise employees’ levels of OCB. OCB is defined as “a set of voluntary behaviours that results in improved functioning of organization’s duties” (Appelbaumet al., 2004, p. 19). The five-dimensional classification of organizational citizenship behavior which was developed by Organ, 1988 depending on the responsibilities resulting from being a civil citizen (altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, civic virtue, and sportsmanship) and is the most commonly used classification in the literature. Altruism is discretionary behavior that has the effect of helping a specific other person with an organizationally relevant task and problem (Podsakoff et al. 1990.).Civic virtue refers to the behavior on the part of employees indicating that they responsibly participate in, are involved in, or are concerned about the life of the organization (Organ, 1988).Courtesy identifies proactive gestures that are sensitive to the point of views of other job incumbents before acting, giving advance notice, and passing along information (Organ, 1988). Sportsmanship refers to the forbearance of doing some action such as filling petty grievance against the organization (Organ, 1988). Conscientiousness is the discretionary behavior on the part of an employee that goes beyond the minimum role requirements of the organization, in the areas of attendance, obeying rules and regulations, breaks (Podsakoff et al. 1990).

Review of Literature

From th previous studies it has been revealed that for success of operations in any type of organization the role of OCB is significant. The employees who inculcate OCB, make the organization successful (Baker, 2005). Such employees are expected to engage in less counter work behaviour. Research has evidence that Bormanet al., (2001) stressed on the association between OCB and effectiveness in the organization.(Podsakoff and MacKenzie, 1997), performance and job satisfaction (Bateman and Organ, 1983) and many other such behavioral outputs. Many studies also have investigated the characteristics of leaders and organizations under the umbrella of responsible leadership (Doh and Stumpf, 2005; Waldman and Galvin, 2008). Responsible leaders care for their followers, and set an example of how to do things the right way concerning making decisions. So, how responsible leadership influences an employee’s OCB is a fundamental, and is a practical research topic that needs to be investigated. Shi and Ye (2016) in their study examined the antecedents and consequences of responsible leadership and analyzed how responsible leadership influences the organization and employees. In their study they concluded that responsible leadership is the integration of leadership ethics and corporate social responsibility. The researchers opined that the antecedents of responsible leadership are (a) personal factors and (b) situational factors. Personal factors and situational factors include: relational intelligence (trustful relationship with stakeholders); empathy (to understand others‟ emotions); and cognitive moral development (to improve their ability); moral intensity; culture value orientations; institutional content and media. In addition, the study found turnover intention, job satisfaction, organization commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors and work performance as consequences of responsible leadership. Doh and Quigley (2014) explored how responsible leadership influences organizational process and outcomes. They looked upon four distinct levels of pathways: (a) micro/individual level (this is important for stakeholders), (b) team level (psychological safety and learning) both linked to team performance. (c) Organizational level (strong ties with external stakeholders) and (d) societal level (identify economic and societal problems). From the study, it seems clear that leader inclusiveness is conceptually related to responsible leadership that emphasizes a stakeholder-based approach-leader. Such leaders are more sincerely interested and invite from others. Responsible leaders are high on inclusiveness and engage multiple categories of stakeholders. Gunavathy and Indumathi (2011), revealed that subordinates will to use OCB and positive impact on any organization depends on the leadership style adopted.

Research Gaps

● There are more studies being conducted on Information technology.
●The research on area of study are very less.

Significance of the study

This study intends to bridge the research gaps mentioned above and contributing to the theory and practice. This study intends to explore the responsible leadership style in pharmaceutical industry. Citizenship behavior exhibited by the employees will also be studied. The study also explores the relation and effect of responsible leadership style on citizenship behavior of pharmaceutical sector employees.

Objectives of the study

1.	To study the demographic difference in citizenship behavior and perception of responsible leadership.
2.	To study the relationship between responsible leadership style and OCB.
3.	To study the impact of responsible leadership style on OCB.

Hypotheses of the study

H1: There is no significant difference in citizenship behavior and responsible leadership style on the basis of gender, age, education and experience
H2: There is no significant relationship between responsible leadership style and on dimensions of OCB
H3: There is no impact of responsible leadership style on dimensions of OCB

Methodology

This study has been completed with responses of 121 pharmaceutical employees. Initially 150 questionnaires were distributed but 29 incomplete questionnaires were not included in the study. Perception of responsible leadership style was measured with the help of self designed questionnaire consisting of 14 items. Civic virtue, sportsmanship, helping others, courtesy and consciousness dimensions of OCB were measured with the help of standardized questionnaire developed by Bakshi & Kumar (2009). Collected data was analyzed with the help of correlation, regression, t-test and ANOVA tools.

Results

Table1: Descriptive statistics and Independent sample t-test for responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB with respect to gender

Variable

Group

 

N

Mean

S.D.

T

Df

P

Responsible leadership

Gender

Male

99

4.015152

.5661447

1.079

119

.283

Female

22

3.866883

.6569859

Civic virtue

 

Gender

Male

99

4.2298

.57330

.513

119

.609

Female

22

4.1477

1.03699

Courtesy

Gender

Male

99

4.203704

.8569959

.769

119

.443

Female

22

4.045455

.9430641

Sportsmanship

 

 

Gender

Male

99

2.398990

1.1245604

.507

119

.613

Female

22

2.265152

1.0991328

Helping Others

Gender

Male

99

4.080808

.5924141

-.268

119

.789

Female

22

4.118182

.5876802

Consciousness

 

Gender

Male

99

4.351291

.5261389

.993

119

.323

Female

22

4.217172

.7547438

The table 1 shows difference in responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB among males and females. As evident p value in all cases is higher than assumed level of significance i.e. 5%. Therefore it is interpreted that there is no difference in responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB on the basis of gender.

Table 2: Descriptive statistics and ANOVA for responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB with respect to age

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

F

Sig.

Responsible leadership

20-30

57

3.844612

.6509024

2.336

.077

30-40

54

4.111111

.5046314

40-50

8

4.187500

.3835873

50 & above

2

3.964286

.5555839

Total

121

3.988194

.5836015

Civic Virtue

20-30

57

4.0658

.77851

2.066

.108

30-40

54

4.3704

.51336

40-50

8

4.1563

.76692

50 & above

2

4.5000

.35355

Total

121

4.2149

.67647

Courtesy

20-30

57

4.152047

1.0939411

.633

.595

30-40

54

4.132716

.6380490

40-50

8

4.500000

.3779645

50 & above

2

4.666667

.2357023

Total

121

4.174931

.8713153

Sportsmanship

20-30

57

2.312865

1.0346527

.995

.398

30-40

54

2.336420

1.1407686

40-50

8

3.020833

1.5051169

50 & above

2

2.583333

1.0606602

Total

121

2.374656

1.1166420

Helping Others

20-30

57

3.926316

.6454584

3.146

.028

30-40

54

4.259259

.5104635

40-50

8

4.050000

.4503967

50 & above

2

4.200000

.4503967

Total

121

4.087603

.5892892

Consciousness

20-30

57

4.237817

.5962991

.928

.430

30-40

54

4.407407

.5330887

40-50

8

4.361111

.7071068

50 & above

2

4.555556

.1571348

Total

121

4.326905

.5731111

The table 2 shows difference in responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB among respondents of different age groups. As evident p value (.028) in helping others dimension of OCB is less than the assumed level of significance i.e. 5%. Therefore it is interpreted that there is difference in helping behavior exhibited by the respondents of different age groups. People in higher age group show more helping behavior than young employees. But in case of other dimensions of OCB and responsible leadership style age does not causes in difference because p vale is higher than assumed level of significance i.e. 5%. Therefore it is interpreted that there is no difference in responsible leadership style and civic virtue, sportsmanship, courtesy and consciousness dimensions of OCB on the basis of age. Table 3 shows the difference in responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB on the basis of education. As evident p value in all cases is higher than assumed level of significance i.e. 5%. Therefore it is interpreted that there is no difference in responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB on the basis of education.

Table 3: Descriptive statistics and ANOVA for responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB with respect to qualification

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

F

Sig.

Responsible leadership

Diploma

6

4.261905

.5338858

.701

.553

Bachelor

57

3.928571

.6334343

Master degree

56

4.015306

.5339520

Doctorate

2

4.107143

.7576144

Total

121

3.988194

.5836015

Civic Virtue

Diploma

6

4.1667

.84656

1.353

 

.261

 

Bachelor

57

4.0921

.74497

Master degree

56

4.3348

.57658

Doctorate

2

4.5000

.35355

Total

121

4.2149

.67647

Courtesy

Diploma

6

4.250000

.6810939

.890

.449

Bachelor

57

4.040936

.6815895

Master degree

56

4.291667

1.0508534

Doctorate

2

4.500000

1.0508534

Total

121

4.174931

.8713153

Sportsmanship

 

Diploma

6

2.305556

1.3140974

.345

 

.793

 

Bachelor

57

2.432749

1.0800590

Master degree

56

2.300595

1.1609904

Doctorate

2

3.000000

.4714045

Total

121

2.374656

1.1166420

Helping Others

Diploma

6

3.733333

.7447595

1.896

.134

Bachelor

57

4.014035

.6345523

Master degree

56

4.207143

.5087801

Doctorate

2

3.900000

.4242641

Total

121

4.087603

.5892892

Consciousness

Diploma

6

4.333333

.6085806

.831

.479

Bachelor

57

4.253411

.6433606

Master degree

56

4.386905

.4937277

Doctorate

2

4.722222

.3928371

Total

121

4.326905

.5731111

Table 4 shows the difference in responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB on the basis of experience. As evident p value in all cases is higher than assumed level of significance i.e. 5%. Therefore it is interpreted that there is no difference in responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB on the basis of experience.

Table 4: Descriptive statistics and ANOVA for responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB with respect to experience

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

F

Sig.

Responsible leadership

 

0-2

25

3.868571

.6280301

.887

.474

2-5

44

3.962662

.5326298

5-10

36

4.005952

.6607212

10-15

11

4.246753

.3743888

15 & above

5

4.114286

.5727663

Total

121

3.988194

.5836015

Civic Virtue

0-2

25

3.9300

.70902

2.038

.094

2-5

44

4.2330

.70381

5-10

36

4.2778

.65677

10-15

11

4.3636

.50452

15 & above

5

4.7000

.27386

Total

121

4.2149

.67647

 

Courtesy

0-2

25

4.120000

1.4644870

.527

.716

2-5

44

4.087121

.7148197

5-10

36

4.203704

.6199221

10-15

11

4.484848

.4246210

15 & above

5

4.333333

.4409586

Total

121

4.174931

.8713153

 

Sportsmanship

0-2

25

2.120000

.8760179

2.523

.045

2-5

44

2.238636

1.1666100

5-10

36

2.824074

1.0442165

10-15

11

1.939394

1.2566992

15 & above

5

2.566667

1.2995726

Total

121

2.374656

1.1166420

 

Helping Others

0-2

25

3.896000

.5718974

1.358

.253

2-5

44

4.045455

.6337245

5-10

36

4.227778

.5740140

10-15

11

4.181818

.5618152

15 & above

5

4.200000

.4503967

Total

121

4.087603

.5892892

 

Consciousness

0-2

25

4.120000

.5799461

1.128

.347

2-5

44

4.378788

.5712603

5-10

36

4.367284

.5087034

10-15

11

4.363636

.8029128

15 & above

5

4.533333

.2876040

Total

121

4.326905

.5731111

Table 5: Pearson correlation coefficient between study variables

 

Responsible leadership

Civic Virtue

Courtesy

Sportsmanship

Helping Others

Consciousness

Responsible leadership

1

 

 

 

 

 

Civic Virtue

.389**

1

 

 

 

 

Courtesy

-.105

.175

1

 

 

 

Sportsmanship

.114

-.288**

-.137

1

 

 

Helping Others

.305**

.405**

.161

.035

1

 

Consciousness

.264**

.640**

.325**

-.408**

.372**

1

Note: Assumed level of significance is 5%

The table 5 shows relationship between responsible leadership style and dimensions of OCB. As evident the responsible leadership style is positively and significantly related to civic virtue (r=.389). This means responsible leadership style positively enhance civic virtue among the employees. Consciousness dimension of OCB is also positively and significantly related to OCB (r=.264), which implies that responsible leadership enhances consciousness behavior. Helping others (r=0.305) is also positively and significantly related to responsible leadership. This implies that if a leader follows responsible leadership style, then employees show helping behavior towards others. Sportsmanship is positively but insignificantly (r=.114) related to responsible leadership style. Responsible leadership style has been found negatively related to courtesy dimension of OCB (r=-.105). Thus it can be interpreted that responsible leadership style is positively related to OCB dimensions (namely civic virtue, sportsmanship, helping others and consciousness).

Table 6: Regression analysis showing impact of responsible leadership style on dimensions of OCB

Dependent variable

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Civic virtue

.389

.151

.144

.62

Courtesy

.105

.011

.003

.87

Sportsmanship

.114

.013

.005

1.11

Helping Others

.305

.093

.085

.56

Consciousness

.264

.070

.062

.55

In the next step regression analysis has been used to study the impact of responsible leadership style on dimensions of OCB. Table shows that responsible leadership style accounts for 14.4%(adjusted r square) change in civic virtue and 6% change in Consciousness and 9% change in helping others dimension of OCB. Responsible leadership does not account for change in other dimensions of OCB namely courtesy and sportsmanship.

Limitations and future scope

The study has been undertaken on a small sample. Further studies can increase the sample size to get a clear picture of the relationship. Only pharmaceutical employees are included in the study. Employees from other industry can be included to make a comparison between their perception and behavior. The study covered only one leadership style. An inclusion of other leadership styles could further clarify the impact of leadership style on OCB

Conclusion

The study intended to establish a relationship between responsible leadership style and citizenship behavior exhibited by the employees. The application of suitable statistical tools revealed that as far as gender, qualification, age, experience are concerned, they are not the cause of difference in the level of responsible leadership style and organizational citizenship behavior. With respect to correlation results it can be interpreted there exists a below average correlation between responsible leadership style and citizenship behavior exhibited by the employees. Responsible leadership accounts for a little change in civic virtue, consciousness and helping others dimensions of OCB.

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