Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With THOMSON REUTERS(ESCI)
Pacific Business Review International is Included in UGC's - CARE List of Journals (Category II).
ISSN: 0974-438X
Imapct factor (SJIF): 6.56
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Ms. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

Mr. Ramesh Modi

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Revesting Intended Learning Outcomes through Social Environment of Class Rooms in Girls High Schools

Author

Mehwish Mobeen

M.Phil Scholar Sociology

GC University Faisalabad

Dr. Muhammad Shabbir Ch. (Corresponding Author)

Assistant Professor Department of Sociology

GC University Faisalabad

Paris Zaka Ullah

Lecturer Department of Sociology

GC University Faisalabad

Engr. Muhammad Tamoor

MS Energy Engineering Scholar

Uzma Niaz

Lecturer

Department of Sociology & Criminology

Ali Fatima College of Science and Management

Abstract

The purpose of research is to analyze the social environment of classroom and intended learning outcome of girl’s students in high schools. The social environment effect the learning process of the students in everywhere where different facilities are provided to the girl’s students within boundary wall of schools that promote student tasks including to interaction, mutual respect, teacher support, participation and andragological skills. For the present study, a sample size of 222 girl’s students was sampled through proportionate random sampling technique from two schools including Government Girls High School Shadiwal and Government Girls Model High School Shadiwal. The sampling unit was based on the characteristics including girl’s students, 9th and 10th class and studying at High Schools. A survey method was used as a technique of data collection and well-structured questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The measurement instrument comprised on the items includes socio-economic characteristics, social environment of classroom indicators and the indicators of intended learning outcomes. The tool was pre-test on 25 randomly selected girls’ students from target population. The study findings reviewed that the social environment of classroom had positive significant effects on intended learning outcomes of girl’s students in High Schools. The findings of the study were approved through multiple statistical tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and correlation statistical test. The study recommended that there is still needs to improve social environment of classroom for girl’s student to improve their intended learning outcomes through school management.

Keywords: Intended, Learning Outcomes, Social Environment, Learning Process, Class Room Facilities

Introduction

Background of the Study

Motivation is placed in the centre of educational system. It is argued that there are three things to remember about education. The first thing is education, second is motivation and third one is motivation (Hofstein&Lunetta, 2004).The directions and progress to understand the motivational dynamics of school achievement. As well as the interaction between (i) the social and academic goals that students bring to classroom (ii) motivation of these goals (iii) the classroom reward structure that influence the motivation of student learning and quality. A complete picture of school achievement through motivational dynamic is provided by related research review. It is an unfolding narrative than a comprehensive cataloguing of numerous study of individual, broad in scope, with lots of intertwining themes that completely provides an overall cohesiveness (Huba & Freed, 2000). The first section of research review is influenced by goal theory and appropriate for the evidence that it depends on purposes, achievement goals and to learn via cognitive and self-regulation mechanisms (Church et al., 2001). The motivational properties of the achievement goals that acknowledge to account for puzzling behaviour is not easily explained by strictly cognitive and goal directed interpretations. For example, if the highest goal of many students leads to achieve the best possible grades then why do some of the destruction chances occurred and success by procrastinating in their studies and by setting unrealistically high goals that doom them to failure? In last they examine how achievement goals are influenced by incentive systems of classrooms, either to the benefits for students or to the detriment of achievement. Particularly, two incentive systems that have commanded the attention of researchers over the past several decades are considered. The courtesy of researchers over the past numerous decades are instructed by two motivation systems which describe that students are optimally encouraged by there being slightly rewards than by playing in learning game, i.e. turning students into participants for acknowledgement and further improvements (Johnson et al., 2000). This explanation is based on motives-drive which usually considers that motivation is an enabling feature that means to higher performance. The shortage of rewards disrupts knowledge by encouraging negative attainment goals such as avoiding disappointment, rather than encouraging goals, which are determined for success. Distinct consideration is given to the mostly disturbing impact of reward scarcity on disqualified students and students of colour as well as on teachers themselves (Richardson & Swan, 2003). During past half century, motivation has emerged through two different perspectives of achievement. Per first perspective motivation takes as a drive. For example, need and action that force individuals towards action. In traditional thoughts needs are highly grip on individual such as a trait. These drives start from first theories of motivation that focus on the satisfaction of basic needs elements e.g. thirst and hunger (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009) due to the restrictions in understanding of psychological approach. Researcher claims that psychological motives work as the need of power, achievement and social approval.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of the study is to analyse the intended learning outcomes of students at high school through social environment of classroom in district Gujarat. A clean and healthy environment is very important for study but day by day school environment getting down because of teacher’s behaviour and attitude. Teachers are not supporting the students emotionally mentally and physically that cause their failure in future studies. Teacher’s behaviour is very important for student’s motivation and intervention because if teacher’s behaviour is not too good and not to participate in classroom activities then students are not learning properly in classrooms. Some teacher’s pay more intention on some students and grade are not signed fairly those effects learning outcomes of students.

1.3 Objectives of the study

	To analyze socio-economic characteristic of the respondent.
	To examine social environment of classroom and intended learning outcomes of girl’s students studying in High schools
	To evaluated the effect of social environment of class on intended learning outcomes of Girls studying in high schools

Literature Review

Conducive learning condition at preschool level

Good qualities of physical learning state of schools have received a staggering part in the productive transport of lessons for students. This audit means to propose a framework towards finishing ideal attributes of preschool learning condition appropriate for direct students through composing study. In rundown, the physical conditions including human comfort (visual, warm, acoustic), spatial orchestrating, nature of equipping and finishing and security segments are considered vital credits for good learning condition. Disclosures are useful for originators, expert centre and approach makers. There is a remarkable need of preschools to provide good workplaces to students.

Attitude of students and teachers toward teaching profession

To instruct a dynamic action, good state of mind & certain skills is necessary. The potential of instructors is relying upon the disposition that they have. The inspirational disposition helps educationist to build up a conductive learner amicable condition in the classroom. This likewise delivers a productive impact on learning. Mentality being a social development is impacted by many components like sexual orientation, social strata, age, and stream of training and preceding experience of the occupation. A stream of instructions is placed in the state mind of educationist towards instructing for calling to toss light. On it a review was directed by utilizing a readymade apparatus. Investigation of various classes like Non-tribal male and female science stream, nontribal male and female sociology stream, Tribal male and female science stream, Tribal male and female sociology stream are embraced. In an example of hundred ninety-six are reacted understudy. These scores are determined to discover the distinction in the state mind of various classes towards instructing

Sport participation motives and substitution versus attendance intention

Dream don clients have been appeared to show both elevated game media utilization (Drayer, 2010) and a more prominent inclination (Shipman et al, 2001). Thusly, dream flourish investment has been recommended to bring about more noteworthy substitution through media (Pritchard and Funk, 2006) but then it has been proposed that dream wear clients go to more occasions.

This review is connected by psychological assessment hypothesis to decide that utilization designs contrast contingent upon their thought processes in dream wear support. Dream don demonstrated a noteworthy goal to expend wear occasions at home

Teacher attitudes toward academic acceleration

The study also explored educator demeanours toward increasing speed and quickened understudies in the Netherlands. Educators from auxiliary schools gave their conclusion about skilled instruction and increasing speed, and assessed articulations about quickened. Most educators considered a unique approach for talented understudies prudent and speeding up a valuable intercession. Instructor’s assessments about quickened social fitness, school inspiration and accomplishment, enthusiastic issues, and detachment are qualified by the amount and nature of related knowledge with quickened understudies and by their feeling on speeding up in talented training. In a consequent mediation, thinking about it we inspected that particular data on speeding up and skills have changed educator’s state of mind toward quickened understudies. Educators who went to the data meeting and got composed data communicated more positive feelings about quickened understudies' social fitness, school accomplishment, inspiration and less negative assessments about enthusiastic issues after intercession. Suggestions for skilled type training are examined.

Methodology

The population of the current study was the two High Schools of Shadiwal Tehsil & District Gujrat. The target population of the current study was the girl’s students of 9th and 10th class studying in boundary wall of schools, namely(a) Government Girls High School Shadiwal(b)Government Girls Model High School Shadiwal. The unit of analysis was based on the target population and were selected on the bases of the following inclusion characteristics; a) Girl’s students of 9th and 10th class b) Studying in High Schools Shadiwal. The complete list of 9th and 10th class was collected from both schools to draw a representation sample from the target population. Proportionate random sampling was used as a technique to draw a sample from the target population. A sample size of 222 students was selected on the bases of Yamana (1967) sample size determination formula;

n= N/ 1+N (e) 2

A survey method technique was used for data collection in the current study. A well-structured questionnaire was administered and used to collect data from the students of 9th and 10th class of Shadiwal High Schools. A pretesting on 25 randomly selected students was done to check the tool of data collection. This procedure was exceptionally fundamental to check the unwavering quality, legitimacy and workability of the estimation instrument. After pretesting, a few inquiries were altered, erased, added and rethought as indicated by the measurable test. After the gathering of the information, it was altered, coded and electronic, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) adaptation 21 which was utilized to investigate information. Uni-variate and bivariate tables were built to demonstrate the patterns of information. Measurable investigation was done to reach results and determination.

Data analysis and Interpretation

List of variables and codes about social environment of class and intended learning outcomes

Table-1: List of Variables

 

Var. Code

Variable name

Nature of variable

1

Teacher's attitude and support

 

Independent Variable

 

Social environment of class

 

2

Teacher participation and intervention

 

3

Student work and dignity

 

4

Class room facilities

 

5

Extracurricular activities

 

6

Andragogical skills

 

7

Knowledge and understanding

Dependent variable

 

Intended learning outcomes

 

8

Intellectual skills

 

9

Professional and practical skills

 

10

Transferable skills

 

Table1 describes the list of variables and codes which represent variables name and nature of variables. Here, independent and dependent variables are clearly demarked which are used in table title correlation statistical test.

Table-2:Correlation statistical test

Var. Code

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

1

.127

.185**

.186**

.047

.183**

.301**

.109

.220**

.184**

2

 

1

.659**

.571**

.349**

.567**

.392**

.271**

.449**

.362**

3

 

 

1

.496**

.356**

.565**

.493**

.348**

.450**

.375**

4

 

 

 

1

.428**

.528**

.308**

.230**

.370**

.324**

5

 

 

 

 

1

.498**

.259**

.090

.267**

.223**

6

 

 

 

 

 

1

.461**

.233**

.442**

.421**

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.493**

.578**

.622**

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.445**

.478**

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.642**

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Table 2 describes correlation statistical test of independent and dependent variables. Here, all the results are significant and positive. All the variables are going through same direction which shows that these are correlated each that. Data reflects that teacher attitude and support is positively correlated with the knowledge and understanding of the students, same as the results were with professional and practical skills of the students. While only teacher attitude and support had weak positive correlation with extracurricular activities in classroom and intellectual skills of the students. Calculated data shows that teacher participation and intervention had a high positive correlation with student worth and dignity, moderate with classroom facilities, andragological skills and professional and practical skills of the students while only there were be positive correlation with intellectual skills of the students and teacher participation. Statistical analysis result reported that student worth and dignity had moderate relationship with all dependent variables and as well as classroom facilities, extracurricular activities and andragological skills with positive correlated with intended learning outcomes of the students. The same results are reported in the table title correlation statistical test which had medium level of positive correlation with all variables except extracurricular activities and intellectual skills of the students which had weak correlation that indicated that there were some other factors which are contributed to improve the intellectual skills of the students.

Table-3: Multivariate OLS regression model predicting intended learning outcome (parameter estimates and standard errors

Predictors

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

T

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

Teacher's attitude and support

.467

.177

.146

2.646

.009

Teacher’s participation and intervention

.491

.250

.149

1.968

.050

Student worth and dignity

.752

.220

.260

3.420

.001

Andragogical skills

.833

.219

.266

3.810

.000

Family monthly income

.682

.317

.118

2.152

.033

Family type [reference: nuclear]

1.319

.666

.109

1.982

.049

(Constant)

32.452

5.380

 

6.032

.000

F

21.685 (Sig. at .000)

R Square

.377

Adjusted R Square

.360

Number of Observation

222

Here, multiple regression models are:

Intended learning outcomes =   β1 (Teacher's attitude and support) + β2 (Teacher’s participation and intervention) + β3 (Student worth and dignity) + β4 (Andragogical skills) + β5 (Family monthly income) + β6 (Family type) + random error

Table 3 describes the multivariate OLS regression model predicting intended learning outcome of the students. Here, the result of regression model predict intended learning outcome through teacher’s attitude and support, teacher’s participation and intervention, student worth and dignity and as well as andragological skills. Family monthly income and type of family were also having significant effect on intended learning outcome of the students. The results export Hypothesis 1 there was significant positive effects of classroom environment and socio-economic characteristics of the students on their intended learning outcome.

Table-4: ANOVA statistical test

Model

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Regression

6341.862

6

1056.977

21.685

.000b

Residual

10479.512

215

48.742

 

 

Total

16821.374

221

 

 

 

Dependent Variable: Intended Learning Outcome

Predictors: (Constant): Family type, Student worth and dignity, Family monthly income, Teacher's attitude and support, Andragogical skills, Teacher participation and intervention

Table 4 describes the analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test. Here, the calculated values of F is 21.685 with p-.000 that shows that the effect of predictors including dependent variables and control variables (family type, family monthly income) were significant which supports hypothesis 1 that there is a significant effect of social environment of classroom on intended learning outcome of the students.

Figure 01depicting the model fit that the influence of social environment of classroom and also I significant positive effects on intended learning outcome of the students. The Standardized Residual error is also following positive squad which is the evidence of best figure model.

Table 5: Correlation statistical test of social environment of classroom and intended learning outcomes (n = 222)

 

Variables

Social environment of class

Intended Learning Outcome

Social environment of class

Pearson Correlation

 

1

.552**

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

 

Intended Learning Outcome

 

 

1

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 5 shows correlation statistical test of social environment of classroom and intended learning outcome of students. The calculated value of correlation statistical test shows that there were positive significant correlation between social environment of classroom and intended learning outcome. Here, the results supports Hypothesis 2 that there is significant positive correlation between social environment of classroom and intended learning outcome.

Discussions

The present research was conduct on 9th 10th class female students in District Gujrat. The sample size was split into Science and Arts groups of 2 schools including a) Government Girls High School Shadiwal b) Government Girls Model High School shadiwal. The age distribution of the respondent 12 to 18 years their father level of education was up to intermediate and only smaller proportion did BA and masters having occupation businessman, farmer/agriculturist and labourer. Their family monthly income is 50000 (RS) and above. The family size distribution of the respondent 1 to 10 and above and were living in nuclear, joint and extended families, their numbers of sibling was 1 to 10 and above.

The socio-economic characteristics of students matter for their intended learning outcome. Social environment of classroom motivate students to learn and perform better in their education level. Many reviews have reasoned that physical measurements and distinctive parts of the physical condition impacts understudies' conduct and states of mind in an unexpected way (MacCaula, 2005). The physical condition and kids' advancement of subjective and social competency is specifically related (Moore, 2002).

The major findings of the present study are following that majority of the respondents feel teacher’s support in their classrooms and teacher’s shows positive behavior in classroom and leaved good impact on them that motivate them but few respondents are response that they were not feel teachers supports and leave good impact. Respondents were strongly disagree that teachers was ignored them in classroom and feeling of irritation in classrooms and show aggressive behaviour in class. The process of motivation is the centre and focus of educational system. It is argued that there are three things to remember about education. The first thing is education, second is motivation and third one is motivation (Maehr, 1997).

Students argued that teachers actively participate and promote friendly environment in classroom and encouraging the students to participate in class activities and also provide moral support when students faced any problem and teachers are considers all students are equal so that’s why their class is student centred class.

They elaborated that teachers given respect to all students and accept their views and listen very carefully and response the answer in cheerful mood when students asked any questions. Teachers also very concerned about students work and maintain their privacy

Students reported that their classroom is in good condition and spacious and well equipped and had proper heat and cool ventilation system. It was protected from noise and furniture for all students and also had fixed black board. At the middle school level, declines in motivation and performance have been associated with changing school and classroom environments (Eccleset al., 2013; Wigfieldet al., 2014).

Teachers conduct extracurricular activities in classroom in which teachers and students are work as a team and these activities provide a plat form for students to express themselves and that class activities motivates students for more struggle and built confidence in students but few respondents are viewed that extracurricular activities have effects on their studies.

Teacher’s method of teaching is good that engage the students in classroom. Teachers help the students to ask questions and gives respect to all students in class. Teachers also provide entertainment and facilitate learning to students in classroom. “Cognitive self-regulation” brings up students to actively engage in their personal learning, including examining the demands of school homework, preparation for and activating their resources to fulfil these demands and checking their progress toward achievement of projects (Pintrich,1999;).

Teachers support and participation in classrooms students’ knowledge and understanding also was enhanced. Students are able to define main concepts of their study and grasp the recent knowledge and also comprehend the recent method provided in their classroom. Their writing skills are improved and they are able to understand their subjects affectively and also able to identify students’ problems of their field.

The intellectual skills of students are enhanced and they are able to use critical knowledge of their field and apply class knowledge in class and are able to give answer of question in their field. Respondents also strongly agree that they are able to participate in discussion related to their field and give logical arguments.

They learn positive behaviour in class and their attitudes are reshaping towards conformity and also moral development of students is going on through their class. Respondents also strongly agree that they are able to face challenging environment and to speak in good manners. Their understanding is enhanced and they demonstrate in front of others. Expansion of positive attitude towards teaching profession helps in developing creative thinking and motivating students (Cetin, 2004).

Students are able to work in group through this their understanding and awareness is increased in class. They learn different factors and are able to apply knowledge in future. Respondents also strongly agree that their communication skills are improved and they are confident in class.

Conclusion

The social environment of classroom had significant effect on intended learning outcome of the girl’s students. The conducive environment of class provides them better opportunity for their learning and enhancing knowledge skills as well as confidence. It comprised on the facilities provided in classroom, teacher’s attitude and support, teacher’s participation and intervention, student’s worth and dignity, andragological skills, leisure time activities and as well as interactive sessions during class that motivates student for more struggle due to students are engaged in class activities and they learn different things that are very necessary for their knowledge and understanding for future. They are able to define the main concepts of their study and also able to understand their subject effectively. Teacher’s support makes them able to give answer of questions, participate in discussion related to their field and learn positive behaviour that reshaped their attitude and personality traits. They are able to face challenging environment and their understanding is enhanced which make them confident to demonstrate in front of others. Students feel that teacher’s support and participation in their work that engage them in classroom and also teacher’s participate in class activities that motivates students for more struggle and enhance their abilities and skills. The intended learning outcomes are also enhanced that make them able to communicate with others in good manners; they are able to identify their class problems and solve them effectively. They are also able to define their subjects effectively and comprehend the recent knowledge provided in classroom. They take their interest to participate in discussion and give logical arguments during their discussion in classroom and in front of others. Students are able to work in groups through their understanding and awareness which enhance their confidence and communication skills.

Recommendation

On the basis of present study, the research recommended the following recommendation to improve class environment and as well as intended learning outcomes
•	School management should provide better opportunities to girl’s students in classroom where they can learn different brackets to live life.
•	Education does not mean to read, write, speak and listen the lesson but it is more focus on how to live in community. So, there is still need to improve classroom environment through extracurricular activities, question answers section and as well as material objects including black board, furniture and the size of room
•	Full participation of the student in classroom should be encouraging ensuring positive classroom dynamics with more learner involvement.
•	Student’s views should be accepted that inspire them to do more hard work.
•	Teachers should not use harsh language with students during class witch affect the mind of students in a negative way. 
•	Provide proper training to teachers for maintaining better classroom environment.
•	Teachers should appreciations to students during their participated in class discussion.

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