Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF): 6.56
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Influence of Job Satisfaction and Spiritual Leadership on Organizational Commitment: Evidence from Banking Sector



Research Scholar

Zhejiang Normal University,Jinhua, China

Muhammad Ali

PhD Student

Department of Public Economics and Management, School of Business

Zhengzhou University, China

Dr. Muhammad Yar Khan

Corresponding Author/Assistant Professor

COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Campus

Dr. AnamJaveed

Assistant Professor

Management Sciences, University of Wah, Pakistan


Today’s environment requires such service organizations which can perform in challenging conditions. All organizations desires to keep their most important asset i.e. Employees which are a difficult task as unsuitable conditions prevent retention. In this research paper an effort will be made to discover out the association among two main aspects first is to find association between spiritual leadership and organizational commitment, and second is to find out the association between job satisfaction and organizational commitment in banking sector of Pakistan, so that organizations/institutions can utilize results for making HR strategies. For this purpose we choose eight famous banks of Pakistan. The surveys support to find out the six relations, first three relations find the influence of dimensions of spiritual leadership on organizational commitment, and next three are to find the influence of dimensions of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. The survey is accompanied on 220 employees from eight banks of Pakistan i.e.  Allied Bank Limited, Bank AlfalahLimited, Bank AlHabibLimited, Summit Bank, Meezan Bank Limited , JS Bank Limited, MCB Limited, and HBL. SPSS statistical packaged software is used to evaluate data acquired from survey. For the purpose of evaluation of data we used different statistical test i.e. descriptive analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, and correlation and regression analysis. All the variables shows positive and significant results and all results of hypotheses proved it. Findings will help the banking sector to solve the problems related to these terms. Because employees are important asset of the organization to retain them is necessary. Make future strategies according to the findings will help them.


Keywords: Spiritual Leadership, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction




In modern era, there is very less time available for the organizations to make decisions which can make or break the organization. At times all the ethical and special values are forgotten to meet the requirements. Organizations expect that their decisions are taken in true letter and spirit even they are not according to the social norms and values but, the results can be negative.

Organizations today need to move very quickly, challenging, specific, and well-organized, to meet the current challenges. Competition between organizations compels all to provide quality service which should be beneficial for the community. So the institutions is required to work best to ensure high-quality but cheap services, which can be retrieved by the customers.

In addition, one important fact that also regulates the success of organizational performance is the service provider, the technical facets related to the service providing process. To recover the quality of the service providing procedure of the organization, an increase in the competence of service provider is required. Service provider as one component of the organization is considered very important in realizing the quality of industry benchmark itself. It is therefore always vital for the service provider to follow the development of the service, both in terms of the service field and the structure.

All the literature and research issues mentioned in these articles lead to the study goal i.e.

·         Exploring the impact of Spiritual Leadership aspects on organizational commitment

·         Exploring the impact of Job Satisfaction aspects on organizational commitment

Following are the research questions:

1.      Finding the connection between inner life and commitment to organization?

2.      Finding the connection between meaningful work and organizational commitment?

3.      To discover the connection between sense of community and commitment to organization?

4.      Finding the connection between healthy working environment and commitment to organization?

5.      Finding an equitable compensation and organizational commitment relationship?

6.      Finding the connection between work flexibility and personal freedom with the commitment of organization?

We used convenience sampling based on non-probability sampling in present studies. Using this sampling method is intended to make it easy to obtain information from the target region because it is simple to finish the study.

For this research study the data collected will be analyzed on SPSS (Version-12). Variousanalysis will be applied on the data i.e. reliability test, factor analysis, descriptive statistics, regression and correlation coefficients to analyze the data, deduce it and check its efficiency.

·         Data will be collected through questionnaire.

·         Sample size depends on population.

·         Response will be taken from banking Industry.

·         For data analysis, statistical software SPSS will be used.

This study is important for:


     Contributes into the literature regarding effect of Spiritual Leadership and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment.

     Will give insight to both leaders and employees about Spiritual Leadership, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment.

     In Pakistan’s context, the study will be an addition in knowledge as very less work has been done so far.


The scope of this research is related with human resource management. Every organization has employees to retain and maintain the experienced employees are very important because employees are the real assets of organization. In this research we combine the concept of job satisfaction with spiritual nature of employee and see the effect of these two terms on organizational commitment. If leaders of the organization know all these aspects they can retain their employee in better way. So this research is for all employees and leaders working in organization by following them they can strong their commitment with their organization. I do my research in Pakistani content; we choose banking sector for this mostly the banks in Karachi and Islamabad city.


This research is classified in five chapters with different headings and sub-headings.These are five chapters of this study: introduction, literature review, methodology, data analysis and conclusion. Research backgrounds, research goals, research issues, research methodology, research importance, and study scope are described in the first section. In second chapter literature review, background of all variables and dimensions are explained with the help of different research papers. In this research, model has six dimensions of independent variables and three dimensions of dependent variable. For the research problem I have six hypotheses to be proved. In data analysis section, collected data is run on statistical software SPSS. Different test are applied on data and find the results. On the basis of standard values we will accept or reject the hypotheses. In last chapter conclusion, recommendation, limitations and future research is explained.

Literature Review

The Concept of Spirituality

The word spirituality is frequently associated with religion. From the time of biblical Abraham and by the literatures and thoughts in Saint Paul, at the time of Protestant Reformation, the term spirituality was also narrowly linked with faith. The religiously Catholic and Protestant reformers in the centuries of 16th and 17th, such as Wycliffe, Erasmus and John of the Cross thought that it has become more political than religious and wanted to leave the practices like religious links and the ties to earthly institution or establishment(Jamison, 2006). It is argued that Spirituality can be left and separated from its links and ties to the religion(Dent, Higgins, & Wharff, 2005). Anybody can be the spiritual personality but not be a member having deep link to a religion or a member be a supporter in a human being. From this it doesn’t mean that the person who is religious have good or bad effects on spirituality. This belief brought in components that concerned the particular traditions of faith that cloud a spiritual management discussion.

An individual is an instance that performs a part like spirituality because it is God's pleasant activity to focus on the activity to understand how an individual changes. A religious personality explains spirituality and its growthlike as achieving the aim to go nearer to God(Jamison, 2006). The trait of Spiritual development is considered not like a sturdy voyage as and failure is expected(Chatzoudes, Chatzoglou, & Vraimaki, 2015).  The Spiritual author like (Kari, 2008)explains “the dark night of the soul” concerning as God is distant. This belief that God is present, the person becomes nearer to God, this origins the person to continue on that path to become nearer(Gunlu, Aksarayli, & Şahin Perçin, 2010)


Spiritual Leadership

Spiritual leadership is considered very difficult to describe. This personality is also has interest to search and look the ways for other persons welfare. In this way a task of spiritual personality is completed and through this a group may be in large or small form is consolidated throughout this process. The leaders having the trait of Spirituality can create the culture in an organization in which spiritual leaders and their supporters have a strong obligation to their tasks in that organization and their vision and mission leads them to the action. The spiritual leader assists their followers to grow with the traits of spiritually to become more completely a person in that process of spiritual growth (Metzger, 2008). In the present time investigators are associating leadership to the spirituality which is stated as spiritual leadership (Madison & Kellermanns, 2013; Shellenbarger, 2000; Z. Geh, 2014). Similarly other researcher like (L. W. Fry & Cohen, 2009) described that the aim of the leadership of spirituality is to spigot into the essential requirements of forerunner and his followers for spirituality comfort by calling and getting association in order to produceimage and worth resemblance crosswise the group, to empower group members at the organization levels which eventually foster higher levels of commitment in the organizations which enhance its productivity.

Different ideas and views on spiritual leadership have been provided. Researchers take it as a management of faith and belief, and different researchers clarified spiritual leadership as well as religious leadership. (Karadag, 2009). According to (Reave, 2005) persons with spiritual traits are same like as spiritual leadership. However, the current researchers are taking interest in the spiritual leadership and its consequences (Parameshwar, 2005) like as followers or workers life satisfaction, organizational engagement, commitment, growth in sales or productivity (L. Fry, Vitucci, & Cedillo, 2005; L. W. Fry, Nisiewicz, Vitucci, & Cedillo, 2007; L. W. Fry & Slocum, 2008; Malone & Fry, 2003; Vandenberghe, 2011); followers happiness (Beheshti Zavareh, Hanaeinezhad, & Aboofazeli, 2013); productivity (Arshad & Abbasi, 2014); and organizational learning capacity (Aydin & Ceylan, 2009). Philosophers have related both in-role efficiency and extra-role production to spiritual management. (Petchsawang & Duchon, 2009)(Chen & Yang, 2012). The spiritual leadership is not comparable with the organizational objectives and goals if workplace spirituality is not present. In this background of the working atmosphere, spirituality can be considered on two levels by namely (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003), as “First, the follower level”, This level is connected with the amount of values promoting distinct inspirational work process understanding. This level eases the sensations of being linked with others which provides sensations of completeness and pleasures. “Secondly, the level of the organization”, at this stage, it concerns the framework of standards and values of organizational traditions that convince staff to understand the work process. Similarly it facilitates the sensations links with others for feelings of completeness and pleasures.        

At the level of an organization, job places spirituality that acknowledges individuals with an inner life that sustains and is motivated to take place in the community scenario by meaningful job (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000). The workplace spirituality has three facets: “the inner life, meaningful work, and a sense of community”, In this case, the workplace spirituality is not about practices of religion, yet individuals are showing their religious belief in the workplace .Spirituality at the workplace level as described by (GarciaZamor, 2003)Spirituality in the workplace is recognition that individuals feel when they arrive at the workplace they have on their bodies, ideas and minds ; it brings skills to employees and a sole spiritual mind”.  Similarly (Gull & Doh, 2004) explained the Workplace Spirituality as; “The people of a nation when find meaning in their performance activities they will be more engaged , more conscientious, more ethical, more collaborative, and thus, more innovative and creative”. In this manner, the spirituality of the workplace is linked to actions that involve individual development, genuineness and transparency, understanding, participation, seeking truth, meaning, and managing for greater purpose, compassion, and community actions.

While individual spirituality can be interpreted as a manifestation of workers ' significant work-related experiences, associations of staff, cohesion and workplace perfection (Salarzehi, Aramesh, & Mohammadi, 2011). The Workplace Spirituality is thus defined at the individual level as one of the psychological atmosphere in which employees participate in having an inner life with meaningful job and place themselves in the sense of community (Wulandari, 2014). The workplace spirituality has been defined in various ways with different concepts. They have described it as “recognition which workers feel in inner life with an effort to find the aim in their life, both in associations with co-workers and the consistency in efforts for alignment of beliefs and values to their organization”. Similarly another researcher (Milliman, Czaplewski, & Ferguson, 2003) explained That the workplace spirituality is a job with meaningfulness, a sense of community, and a connection to the organization's values. Each of these facets characterizes the three levels of the workplace of Spirituality, i.e. the individual level, community level and level of organization.

Inner Life

The researchers concentrated to know the internal world of beliefs and trustrelatively than the external world of religious performs. William James, in 1902, was known as the first person who viewed properly to separate religion from the spirituality(Hagerty, 2009; Jamison, 2006). Though several researchers like as(Haber, Jacob, & Spangler, 2007; Tirri, 2006) have linked and discussed religious spiritually, they have also who investigated the aspects of spirituality widespread to a secular setting From these authors ' studies, six facets of spirituality have been studied: searching for significance, generous motivation, sharing religious and secular spirituality, community, integrity, and active process. The chances of inner life include worries about how spirituality is respected by organization and the spiritual values of the person. It indicates the absence or existence of the “building blocks to spirituality” as explained by(Ashmos & Duchon, 2000)It is also linked to the “spiritual bonding” described by (Burroughs & Eby, 1998)that Inner life link to the workplace is like a construct of “psychological or relational contract for sense of community at work”.

Meaningful work

The Leadership having traits of spirituality helps their followers to see sense in their work at the workplace. They help to explore opportunities in which they can be intrinsically inspired. They arrange their work with technique that internment the advantages of collective coordination and preserve the values as they achieve their assigned task or work, and follow a sincerefacade in the workplace (Collins, 2010; L. W. Fry & Cohen, 2009). Majority researchers relate spirituality to a search of meaningfulness(Anderson, Krajewski, Goffin, & Jackson, 2008). In the spirituality of management literature, this is regarded to be the most dominant perspective. Significance may be linked to the significance in their lives, may be linked to the significance in one's assigned task or job purpose, or may be linked to the quest for significance in the universe strategy. In the depth view, spirituality is concerned about making of meaning. It becomes tightly wicker into the purpose of one’s survival which influences all aspects of his life. In the search of meaningful life, he looks at the both aspects as “outside corporeal world which is apparent by the senses and the innermystical world that is managed and is subjective by the same sensations for enjoyment at assigned task or work. It includes elements which are related to the feelings of joy and pleasures at the assigned tasks or work. The “meaningful work” is explained as a sub-facet of the larger dimension (Gunlu et al., 2010) who described a different technique to obtain the meaningfulness at work.

Sense of Community

Community is explained as connectedness and linkages as membership to the society. Connection or linkage to the others members is a elementary need for human (Routledge, 2015). Community is defined as the linking developed by the associates or individuals of a group (Albom, 2011). Other researchers have explained the Community as it goes beyond the group. Community is a connection which gives feelings with the ordinary world and to the universe. Spiritual leader’s job is to inspire their groups to develop a connection with a sense of community (Estanek, 2006).  Spiritual leaders support their followers in developing a connection with their work. They help them to see the opportunities how they do makes positivity as compared to others or to other world. If the job incumbents or followers work only for the paycheck, if they have no believed for their children and their upcoming generations, their aim is to achieve a personal goal not the spiritual. If they firmly believe in their latent work to alter the nation, world, and do excellent things for their children, people, or the generation to come, then their hard work and personal gratification will be as great as spirituality. This involves items linked to team spirit, shared care, and sense of community and emotions of mutual purpose. Same view for “sense of community” has also been described by aspect identified by (Milliman et al., 2003). The meaningfulness is the group's job, or the individual is related to the goal and values of his / her private life that are responsible for the society. Same was viewed by different researchers for the dimension of “meaningful work”.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is usually described as how an individual is happy with his or her job and can be described as "how individuals feel about their allocated duties or employment and distinct facets of their job or job"(Spector, 1997). The topic of job satisfaction was a common 1930s study period when the industries or corporations have realized the job satisfaction is positively associated with the outcome or productivity. Resultantly, one can scrutinize today several approaches, techniques and descriptions on this subject. Researcher may be concerned with job satisfaction for many motives. Firstly, job satisfaction may be concerned by the researchers with some extent to reflect how workers are given respect and fairness in paychecks. Second, job satisfaction is a sign of the psychological and emotional health of a worker. Third, it can influence the worker's or follower's behavior and subsequently affect the purposes of the organization and its results or productivity. (Hackman & Oldham, 1980)investigated and described that Job satisfaction is the outcome of an internal motivation of the individual and job satisfaction is also an indicator of the psychological health of the individual. Work satisfaction is therefore connected with the theory of motivation. As determinants of a person's requirements, the earliest opinions on job satisfaction were regarded.(Chung, 1969)explained and pointed out five crucial needs for fully satisfaction of a person. There is a process theory where you concentrate the cognitive processes of the individual (Johannessen, 2013). Adams ' equity theory and Vroom's expectation theory are the most known process theories (Adams, 1963) who explained that people are anxious more about how fair their input or presentation was compensated or output given in comparison with the groups having similar inputs or the persons with the same task or job.

Healthy Working Environment 

Healthy work environment is related to extrinsic satisfaction which is often explained as external job facets such as work environment which have influence worker arrogances and conduct. Extrinsic satisfaction is also referred to as hygiene factors in which it relates to fair compensation, social associations of employees, policy and administration supervisors, secure and healthy work setting, opportunities for development, social integration, constitutionalism in the organization of work, work condition and total space of life, social importance of work life, status and job security(George & Zakkariya, 2015; Nanjundeswaraswamy & Swamy, 2013). If an employer does not generate excellent working circumstances and their associated variables as a healthy job setting, employees will not be satisfied with their job. In contrary to this, if an employer implements good working environment, employees tend to be motivated in doing their job(Mirkamali & Thani, 2011; Randeree & Ghaffar Chaudhry, 2012). Many other studies in job satisfaction describe if workers are satisfied with work environment, this will lead to enhance organizational commitment (Duxbury & Halinski, 2014; Gunlu et al., 2010; Song, Lee, Lee, & Song, 2015).  


EquitableTable Compensation

The pay determinants are significant for the satisfaction of a worker and this significance of pay factors varies across nationwide cultures. For instance, in Norway, where employees and management exercise a small energy distance and wage variation, fairness dictates labor standards and culture(Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2005). The amount of pay and frequency of elevation are therefore not taken as powerful analysts as pay fairness for job satisfaction to Norwegians. However, power distance is more emphasized in other domestic cultures and pay equity is less appreciated. It is predictable that highly qualified persons obtain salaries high and promoted quicker than lower qualified persons (Desiderio, 2016). So across the borders, in international environments with heterogeneous cultures, the development of a pay policy that pleases all employees with different cultural backgrounds is therefore difficult. (Adams, 1963) described that people are more worried about how fairly their input or performance has been rewarded compared to individuals or organizations with the same input at the same workplace.

Personal Freedom and Job Flexibility

The discernment of control more on work will buffers the inverse influence of a work situation on the worker health and wellbeing. The perceptions as more control on the activities or the work to perform the less will be the stress. Freedom can be above any activity or aspect of job, can include place, flexible plan, and how the operations are performed. Growing up that increased liberty at job is an significant factor in the health and well-being of employees (Iqbal, 2012). Freedom and flexibility over one’s work like deadlines, outputs will have strong impact on the worker satisfaction and perceived stress which influence both workers self-esteem and their skill to achieve assigned work goals. Workers with low flexibility at the job will frustrate and will make them to feel under esteemed (Private, 2008).

Organizational Commitment

Organizational engagement is described as the intensity of the sense of obligation of the staff towards the duties or duties allocated by their staff. Same was explained by(Desiderio, 2016)That organizational commitment is the psychological attachment of an individual to an organization that creates a markable connection between the individual and the organization. Corporations adopt this phenomena of psychological contract to attain Organizational Commitment (Özşahin, Zehir, Acar, & Sudak, 2013). Organizational commitment is the worker's relationship with their organization.Overall, employees who are committed to their organization tend to feel a cognitive connection with their Organisations, feel fit in that organization, and realize that they know the significance of organizational objectives. They add value to the organization and their added value is considered as determinant for their success. They relatively high effort for productivity and they will be more proactive in offering their efforts for the organization. Similarly (Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 2013) investigated and defined that organizational commitment is the relative strength of an organization's participation and identity. Furthermore, this study work defined Organizational commitment as a powerful desire to stay as a member of a specific business or organization and a person's willingness to make a great effort for an organization's achievement. The person definitely accepts and beliefs in norms and values in the organization for achievement of organizational goals.

Organizational commitment is seen as the primary region of human resource management concentration(Guest, 1998; Renee Baptiste, 2008), so there is a need to explore the factors by which  the employees’ commitment to their work and organization is ensured, workers well-being is secured which drives the organization performance or the productivity (Renee Baptiste, 2008). In a parallel view other researchers have concentrated on the significant of workers’ commitment to their organizations which is taken as determinants for the productivity or performance of an organization (Benjamin & David, 2012; Jackson, 2004; Mosadeghrad, Ferlie, & Rosenberg, 2008). With this in mind, it will be essential to create employee attitudes that always cause dedication to their organization in order to secure a long-term achievement or to guarantee a favorable performance.A three-component engagement model was created and defined for the Organisationsby (Meyer & Allen, 1991)This demonstrates three kinds of organizational engagement as affective, continuance and normative commitments that create a binding link between staff and their organization. To identify the employee's attachment to the organization, these three organizational elements may occur separately or collectively. However, several past studies and literatures (Cohen, 2003; Gutierrez, Candela, & Carver, 2012; Redman & Snape, 2005) have given importance to concentrate on multiple types of workers commitments to the organizations. Similarly (Schoemmel & S. Jønsson, 2014) explained that various kinds of commitments may affect organization’s productivity or performance directly or indirectly. The three facets of organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1991) describe human behaviour that have effect on the decision whether to be committed or not be committed, it is vital for an organizations to explore these facets of commitments to develop suitable strategies to enhance workers’ commitment to their organization and to take the benefits which organizational commitment would provide to the organization for its survival.

Immediate response by the nature of a person to the organization is obtained through attitudinal change of individuals. (Mowday et al., 2013)viewed that organizational commitment (OC)zfT is significant and defining facet for employee’s attitudes at job. Organizational commitment (OC) was described and explained various perspectives by different researchers. Organizational commitment (OC) is “potency of an individual’s identification to be involved in a particular organization”. Organizational commitment is defined as the individual's psychological relationship or connection with an organization. This is the tendency to align a person's goals and objectives with the organizational goals and goals(Khalid & Ishaq, 2015). Person’s responses are affective in nature to the factors of an organization where person works is organizational commitment. It is connected with an organization's emotions and commitment to values standards, goals and goals. Organizational commitment can be explained as a factor which contributes to the wellbeing of worker at the workplace. Three main dimensions which explain organizational commitment are: Recognition of one’s self-importance in the organization or in the corporations or in the enterprise through which Personalize the organization's objectives and objectives to its values; the second dimension of OC is an attachment of the individual to his organization is by which he puts high efforts on the work for the benefit of his enterprise or his organization. Last

one dimension is loyalty of the individual for affection to his organization (a trademark relation or link to his enterprise organization, wisdom of belongingness for a wish of the individual to stay in his organization in which he working presently (Cook & Wall, 1980). A major model of organizational commitment was created and clarified by (Meyer & Allen, 1991)This model suggested three key aspects of organizational commitment (OC), which are referred to as affective, normative and continuous commitment.

Affective Commitment

(Meyer & Allen, 1991)described that when the employee is engaged or involved, affective engagement is created, recognizes value-relevance and derives its recognition through a connection with the organization. An employee, for instance, tends to be affectionately engaged if he feels that the organization will treat him fairly, respectfully, and in a manner that supports him.(Song et al., 2015)described that affective commitment is based on the organization's thrilling connection. The employee is affectively connected to the organization and driven to contribute more than those employees who have a weak affective bond to the organization. This model has therefore anticipated that affective engagement will lead to reduced intention for turnover, reduced rate of absenteeism, improve efficiency, and boost behavior of organizational citizenship. The affective commitment of the organization is an expressive, exciting inner state of a worker, whereby he desires to stay for long time in a particular organization or businesses because of his attachment to the organization or a particular business (Meyer & Allen, 1991)Similarly (Allen & Meyer, 2000) further explained that three core components model of OC. They described that three core dimension of the commitment have link with worker satisfaction. These three core facets are distinguishable to each other and work satisfaction, job involvement, and to the professional obligation. They recognized and clarified all three key facets of engagement that have an adverse connection to the intention of cognition and turnover. Affective commitment is extremely associated with organizational outputs such as performance and necessary conduct in the organization. Affective commitment is the degree and propensity of worker’s emotional feelings and link or belonging to the specific organization. It is ties with the particular organization or firms that are considered nonpolitical ties. In the long time these ties or links are expected most likely to fulfill the worker own needs.

Normative Commitment

Employee’s realization of an obligation towards the organization is known as normative commitment. This realization is tending to make positive contributions to the organization. As explained by (Allen & Meyer, 2000) Obligation does not have the same passion and commitment as affection. Normative commitment is explained as sentiments of worker’s obligation to stay in future in the present organization. Normative commitment is created when employees internalize the norms and values of the organization through socialization in order to obtain the advantages that lead them to feel the need to react or accept the conditions of a psychological contract.(Allen & Meyer, 2000; Meyer & Allen, 1991) described that normative commitment has associations with organizational desired outcomes. These two facets as affective commitment and normative commitment have powerful positive relation to the organizational desired outputs. As described by the (Song et al., 2015)As an affective, continuance and normative engagement, these three facets are distinguishable aspects of the commitment. However other writers like (Spector, 1997)has questioned the usefulness as a separate measurement to hold on normative commitment. They also viewed that two facets of commitment as affective commitment and normative commitment has high relationships. These two facets demonstrate relationships to the other variables which are specifically contended to the outcomes dedication(Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993).The positive association of affective commitment and normative commitment was assessed and defined, and these correlations were contrasted with the other factors that the organization wanted. Other author like (Cohen, 1996) has made an attempt to explicate the dissimilarity of the two facets as affective commitment dissimilarity to the normative commitment.

Continuance Commitment

Continuance commitment is created when an employee understands that he is likely to lose the investment in the specific organization and that there are no better solutions to staying in the specific organization(Allen & Meyer, 2000)(Meyer et al., 1993). Clearly, the model described that employees with a strong dedication to continuity will not understand any propensity to add value to the specific organization beyond what is necessary to maintain their employment. Furthermore, if continuing engagement is the primary association linking employees to their Organizations, this association may lead to undesirable conduct at job. Continuance commitment is defined as value intensity that a worker has invested in particular business or organization, which he considers will be lost if he leave it (Khalid & Ishaq, 2015). (Meyer & Allen, 1991)described that continuance commitment has not relationships or negative relationship to the desired outcomes for an organization like as employee’s performance, and organization required behavior and employee’s required outcomes. Continuance commitment is linked to the choice of the employee to remain in a specific organization in order to maintain and escape from the potential for financial losses that may result from a completely off - the-shelf organization. For example, workers may search a new job or work with comparable return or more to the present one. In comparison to the facets of affective complement, the continuance commitment relies less on the present communal environment of work and rely more on the worth of other option. Continuance commitment has a tendency to emphasize low on pay instead of broader socio-emotional goals like as position and self-respect. The facet of Continuance Commitment is affected more than the other two facets as affective and normative commitment.


Spiritual Leadership and Organization Commitment

Organizational commitment is a psychological attachment that characterizes the connections of an employee with the organization and decreases the probability of leaving the organization(Meyer & Allen, 1991). Similarly, several writers stressed that more spirituality-developed rulers will be more efficient (Cacioppe, 2000; L. W. Fry & Cohen, 2009). Other researchers define that the religious revolution itself is important because, after decreasing worship, neighborhoods and extended families, work is essential to staff for their development (GarciaZamor, 2003). Spirituality in the workplace is regarded a kind of relief for the "ills of contemporary leadership"(Brown, 2003)and a method for maintaining confidence between Organisations and staff, allegedly lost in isolation from dehumanized practices that accompany huge rationalization procedures, employee abuse and other acts that violate psychological agreements(Jurkiewicz & Giacalone, 2004). Similarly other researchers view that spirituality adds value to organizational performance (Jurkiewicz & Giacalone, 2004). One of the comprehensive organizational commitment models was described by (Allen & Meyer, 2000)differentiates three aspects of commitment as affective (emotional participation of the company or organization), continuance (perceiving and comparing the cost of staying or leaving the organization) and normative (personal emotions of duty towards the company or organization).Each of these facets helps to reinforce the likelihood that the workers will remain in the particular company or organization, but the nature of each worker's mindset may differ from the other. Employees with a strong emotional connection will remain because they want to remain. Workers with a strong dedication to continuity will remain because they recognize that they need to remain to escape the loss. Employees who are normally engaged will remain because they recognize they should. This explains that a worker may be affectively, normatively or have continuance commitment to the organization. In short, asserted by (Jurkiewicz & Giacalone, 2004).It is appropriate for Organisations to create a spirituality with the existence of particular values and cultural characteristics (trust, empathy, justice, respect, humanism, meaningful work, hope, dignity and sincerity) where private and professional fusion is feasible. This involves the individual in the process of working. Most likely, this will direct more passion, effort, dedication and efficiency (Wrzesniewski, 2003). Therefore, when individuals recognize that their workplace supports the fulfillment of their spiritual needs and fulfills the significance at job, they will improve their affective and normative commitment and reduce their instrumental commitment.


Job satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Satisfied employees will be more enthusiastic and committed to serve the customers. Similarly (Babajide & Akintayo, 2011)pointed that the pressure originated from the work has considerable effect on the degree of job satisfaction and commitment and compliance of the employees. (Homburg & Stock, 2004)explained Workers working in service industries with a high rate of job satisfaction will be more customer-oriented, more balanced, more environmentally friendly and have a beneficial impact on customer satisfaction. Job satisfaction is generally thought to be a greater degree of satisfaction in providing enhanced efficiency, low absenteeism rate, and low turnover intention. Satisfied employees will be more committed to serving customers(Silvestro & Cross, 2000). They also clarified that satisfied employees are more likely to perform better and provide the finest services through the organizational behavior needed. Satisfied with their workforce, they will be more involved in their Organisations and more committed to providing high-quality services. The quality in service industry is affected by the workers who are satisfied on their jobs (Hartline & Ferrell, 1996). Workers performing in the service with a high level of job satisfaction are likely to be happy to deliver a more balanced and work-friendly quality service and have a beneficial impact on customer satisfaction. (Homburg & Stock, 2004). Other scientists indicated that they will be more satisfied, engaged and result in elevated job performance when employees engaged in decision-making.

Others have demonstrated a relationship in job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Tella, Ayeni, & Popoola, 2007). Similarly (Jaramillo, Mulki, & Marshall, 2005) discovered a favorable organizational commitment to the work relationship. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction have a direct influence. The other researcher like (Closon, Leys, & Hellemans, 2015) investigated 327 employees from a social work organization and (Westover, Westover, & Westover, 2010)a favorable relationship in OC and job satisfaction was established by 214 individuals from 22 non-profit organizations in the Midwestern State of the USA. Similarly 730 workers were investigated from retail sectors and found a positive relation (Ángel Calderón Molina, Manuel Hurtado González, Palacios Florencio, & Luis Galán González, 2014). Other studies found that the supervisor's capacity to study and provide adequately what employees want at the workplace was an important determinant of organizational commitment (Closon et al., 2015; Duxbury & Halinski, 2014; Westover et al., 2010).

Workplace Spirituality and Job Satisfaction

The notion of work satisfaction has four primary theories: Herzberg's two-factor theory, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Alderfer's ERG theory and McClelland's theory of learned requirements (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959)(Maslow, Frager, Fadiman, McReynolds, & Cox, 1970)(Alderfer, 1969)(McClelland, 1987). Most of the job satisfaction study studies partly examined these theories and shaped their conceptual framework based on these theories of content. Each of these theories has a separate perspective of human requirements.Some of the past studies see job satisfaction as one latent variable(Fu & Deshpande, 2014; Mabasa & Ngirande, 2015; Macintosh & Krush, 2014; Schwepker, 2001; Song et al., 2015), from this point of perspective, therefore, the notion of latent job satisfaction as a single structure is not philosophical, leading to erroneous outcomes(Alegre, Mas-Machuca, & Berbegal-Mirabent, 2016; Gaertner, 2000; Paulin, Ferguson, & Bergeron, 2006; Snipes, Oswald, LaTour, & Armenakis, 2005; Spagnoli, Caetano, & Santos, 2012). (Spector, 1997) Explained that job satisfaction is ' the general feeling of a worker about his work and his behavior about different elements or features of the job, his behavior and perception will affect the degree of connection between the worker and the organization. Emphasized on the concern of Job satisfaction, leadership have a vital role (Olaniyan & Hystad, 2016). The service provider has a key position to determine the quality and significance of its service, thus influencing the organization as a human factor. It is necessary to develop a strategy that can increase the quality of human resources for improvement in organizational performance and to increase individual performance. Workers or individual results are strongly linked to the workplace and the worker's attitude is linked to the individual's capacity to enhance output. The role of employee attitude is emphasized by a performance-oriented company or organization. Today, more staff are spiritually developing in the workplace to boost allegiance (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000). Spirituality has connections with employee behavior in the form of job satisfaction, job performance, work behaviour, work ethics and morality (Chawla & Guda, 2010). Spirituality develops individual to be able to recognize the significance of associations and roles of the company to perceive job satisfaction and his commitment in the organizational. Therefore no organization will be able to make progress dissatisfied workers so it will be difficult to keep skilled workers because of their miscellaneous needs. (Berrell, Singh, Garg, & Deshmukh, 2009; Charoensukmongkol, 2015; Fink & Kraus, 2007; Metts, 2007).

Spiritual Leader, Follower Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Behaviour and expressions of the Leader is all of the actions of the leader through which he or she completes tasks in the organization(Anderson et al., 2008; Yukl, O'Donnell, & Taber, 2009). A frontrunner exercises his performances to inspire others to attain the target and the assignment of his organization. A successful frontrunner gets higher productivity and moves his organization to upward. The leader's behavior is unfair in a spiritually guided organization due to the intensity of his spiritual depth. Spiritual leader is influenced on the understanding of: what he considers as means to be human, how his sympathetic assists him to link others inside and outside of his organization, and how he will be merged into Nature with his organization. The leader's spirituality is evidently the quality of his links with supporters that the leader has to perform the organization's operations or company. The Spiritual Leader's interactions are frank and positive. Spiritual rulers are concentrated on the subordinates or supporters being elevated. With a level of engagement and dedication equivalent to the level of spirituality of the leader, the followers will fulfill their duties. The adherents will be loyal and dedicated to fulfilling their organization's mission. In a spiritually led organization, the subordinate or supporters will be excited and enthusiastic to complete their assigned tasks because the followers see how the assigned tasks fit and linked into a bigger picture (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000; Bell & Taylor, 2001; Benefiel, 2005). The followers realize the philosophy for their work. The followers know that their frontrunner recognizes and morals them. The followers will be honest in putting their high efforts. The followers realize a sense of relations and belonging to something greater than themselves (Rose, 2001). The facets of a spirituality-controlled organization are three facets such as Community, significance, and honesty. These facets are built on each other and provision each other with dynamism. Mislay one of them is going to fall apart. Meaning is surrounded by how it becomes a community, and the individuals dedicated to meaning build a community. Absence of truthfulness and honesty will destroy the community. Each one facet is similarly significant to the organizational culture. In this culture of three facets community, meaning, and honesty, people, frontrunners and followers, grow in spirituality and humanity(Benefiel, 2005; L. W. Fry & Cohen, 2009). The interaction of the leader with people in an organization will be on the surface level for followers to learn about the leader. If the leader is viewed as authentic, this perception will lead to confidence and real communication will start when the adherents trust the leader.The leader's words, characteristics, and behaviors direct and create the spiritual development of the adherents. Followers will be more committed to follow their leader and will assume various spiritual practices of the leader as the followers have a desire to be more liked by their leader. As the spiritual performs take effect, the groups will develop a spirituality of their own and will be more satisfied. A spirit of community is developed by the spiritual contact (Fairholm, 2004). Spiritual leadership blows into the necessities of the together leaders and followers for spiritual endurance so they become more organizationally dedicated and creative.



In this chapter collected data is used on statistical software SPSS. We have two independent variables in this study, i.e. spiritual leadership and job satisfaction, and one dependent variable is organizational commitment. We use these analyzes in this study: Descriptive assessment, factor analysis, regression analysis, coefficient analysis, reliability analysis and correlation analysis, and we can accept or dismiss the hypotheses on the grounds of normal values of F, P and T.


Figure 3. 1 Theoretical Framework of Research


Spiritual leadership and job satisfaction are independent variable in the above structure and variable dependence on organizational commitment. Inner life, meaningful work, and sense of community are dimensions of spiritual leadership while healthy working environment, equitable compensation and job flexibility & personal freedom are the dimensions of job satisfaction. Affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment are the dimensions of organizational commitment. The relationship between the sizes of independent and dependent variables is concentrated on this study.

According to the theoretical framework we have six hypotheses in this research i.e.

Hypothesis 1: With organizational commitment, Inner Life has a favorable and substantial relationship.

Hypothesis 2: Significant work has a favorable and important relationship with the commitment of the organization.

Hypothesis 3: sense of community has a favorable and substantial relationship with the commitment of the organization.

Hypothesis 4: Healthy work environment has a favorable and important relationship with the commitment of the organization.

Hypothesis 5: Equitable Compensation has a positive and important relationship with the commitment of the organization.

Hypothesis 6: Job Flexibility & Personal Freedom has a favorable and important relationship with the commitment of the organization.

Dimensions of independent and dependent variables are concentrated in this study. All the hypotheses are suggested that dimensions have a favorable and meaningful relationship with dependent variable sizes.

The above section explains all the variables and their sizes. It is clarified from the model that the dimensions of spiritual management are inner life, meaningful work and feeling of community, and spiritual leadership is acting as an independent variable. Healthy work climate, fair compensation, flexibility in employment and personal freedom are aspects of job satisfaction, and job satisfaction is also an independent variable. Affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment are aspects of organizational commitment and behave as variable dependence. So, that implies we've got two independent variables and one dependent.

Data is composed from eight famous banks of Pakistan through questionnaires. In the questionnaire we used 5 point likert scale. Variables of control are drawn from age, gender, and experience. Point 1 in questionnaire is taken as strongly disagree and point 5 on questionnaire are taken as strongly agree. Stratified sampling methods are used to gather bank information. In questionnaire we have total of 37 questions. 4 questions of inner life, 5 questions of meaningful work, 4 questions of sense of community, 4 questions of healthy working environment, 3 questions of equitable compensation, 5 questions on job flexibility and personal freedom and 12 questions on organizational commitment.  Eight banks are Allied Bank limited, Bank Alfalahlimited, Bank AlHabiblimited, Summit Bank, Meezan Bank limited, JS Bank limited, MCB limited, and HBL. Questionnaires are filled by 298 employees of these banks.

In this research following analysis methods are used by SPSS.

1)      Descriptive Analysis

2)      Factor Analysis

3)      Reliability Analysis

4)      Correlation Analysis

5)      Regression Analysis

6)      Coefficient Analysis

In all these analysis we are going to check the reliability, validity of variables. We also check the relation between variables in correlation analysis. In regression analysis we are going to check the fitness of model and either it’s significant or not.

Data Analysis and Presentation of Findings


This chapter explains the analysis in detail. The model which we present for research is analyzed here with the help of collected data. Data is collected from famous banks of Pakistan. To know the term spiritual leadership, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, we read so many research papers to support my model. Now in this section we are going to apply different tests on data and find out the results.

This research involved the banking sector of Pakistan mainly the banks in Karachi. Mostly the headquarters of all the banks are in Karachi so we think my research is very useful in this respect. We used 8 famous banks of Pakistan namely: Allied Bank limited, Bank Alfalahlimited, Bank AlHabiblimited, Summit Bank, Meezan Bank limited, JS Bank limited, MCB limited, and HBL. To collect data from the banking sector is not that easy but it takes more time to follow the proper procedure and take permission from that concerned person to collect data.

The research design of this research is descriptive with the help of different research paper we finalized this model. The hypotheses are projected to prove model. For data collection questionnaire are used. Stratified sampling is used for data collection. The aim of this study is to understand how an worker feels when they work in an organization, which thing satisfies them more and when they feel uncomfortable because these things directly affect the commitment of employees to the organization. If commitment is not strong then organization has to repeat all the hiring and training process again and it incur time and cost both. So in this research design we have two independent variables with three dimensions each and one dependent variable with three dimensions also.

The data collected is both qualitative and quantitative. The source of data in this research is employees of banks. We used questionnaire to collect data and for secondary data we used past research papers. We pick the banking sector because they have to cope with economic issues and if staff is not engaged with the organization then it will be a huge danger for the entire industry, so keeping your skilled staff is superior.

This research used both quantitative and qualitative methods of investigating the data. The greater information was found from the study was analyzed using statistical software SPSS. Different tests are applied on data to prove the hypotheses. In order to demonstrate hypotheses, descriptive analysis, factor analysis, regression analysis, coefficient analysis, analysis of reliability and correlation analysis are required.

In this research we have three control variables that are age, gender and experience. According to data collected total respondents are 220 from which 133 are males and remaining are females. It shows 60.5% responses are from males and 39.5% are females. The second control variable is age we breakdown it in 5 sub-sections. Analysis shows that 35 respondents are from 18 – 25 years of age, 30 are from 26 – 35 years of age, 59 are from 36 – 45 years of age, 64 are from 46 – 55 years of age and 32 are more than 55 years of age.  From this control variable it seems that most respondents are from 46 – 55 years of age group. The last control variable is experience and we divided it into 6 sub-sections. 15.9% respondents are fresh, 4.5% have 1 – 5 years of experience, 22.7% have 6 – 10 years of experience, 20.5% have 11 – 15 years of experience, 32.3% have 16 – 20 years of experience and 4.1% have more than 20 years of experience. In table 1 N indicates the complete amount of participants, minimum and maximum values, mean and standard control variables deviation.


Table 1:  Descriptive Statistics for Variables


Sample Size(N)




Std. Deviation






























































In table 1N indicates the amount of participants in total i.e. 220. It is the descriptive statistics for all variables. Minimum value shows the smallest value of dimensions. Mean value shows the value which is mostly used for central tendency.  Standard deviation shows the spread between values. The organizational commitment's minimum value is 2.42, the maximum value is 4.67, the mean value is 3.7826, and the standard deviation is 0.42612.

Table also shows the descriptive statistics of control variable, in this research have three control variables i.e. age, gender and experience. The minimum value of all is 1 and maximum value is change i.e. 2 for gender, 5 for age and 6 for experience. Mean value ranges from 1.3 to 3.6 and standard deviation ranges from 0.49 to 1.47.


Table 2: Frequency Table of Gender














The gender variable frequency is shown in Table 2. 133 respondents are male and 87 are females total of 220. Major area of data is covered by a male that is 60.5% while females only covered 39.5% of all sample size.


Table 3: Frequency Table of Age

Age Group



18 – 25



26 – 35



36 – 45



46 – 55



More than 55





Table 3 depicts the frequency and percent of different age group. Most of the respondents belongs from 46 – 55 years of age and shows the 29.1% of the total sample.The youngest participants are from the 26-35 age group, i.e. 13.6%.


Table 4 Frequency Table of Experience

Experience Level






1 – 5 years



6 – 10 years



11 – 15 years



16 – 20 years



More than 20




Table 4 explains the frequency of experience of respondents. Large population has experience of 16 – 20 years i.e. 71 respondents with the percentage of 32.3. 4.5% of the respondents have experience of 1 – 5 years.


Table 5: KMO & Bartlett’s Test

KMO Adequacy of sampling


Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

Approx. chi-square







Table 5 shows the factor analysis of data. We do KMO and Bartlett’s test to check that our data is valid or not. Actually it is the dimension reduction technique. In this they summarize the information from data. In this the factor means the linear combination of original variables. We use this technique only on quantitative variables. In Bartlett’s test it compares the correlation matrix to the identity matrix. If we have any redundancy in our data we can also observed from this. KMO check that we can factorize capably the original variables. When we do correlation analysis we can observed that all variables have some correlation. We make partial correlation to check the effect of two variables while ignoring the remaining variables. So KMO help us to compare the original correlation and partial correlation here KMO value is .616 it means its moderate not so high not so low. Significant values show that Bartlett’s test is also significant. We use this test as a whole to check that in a few factors we can or cannot summarize the data given by the original variables.


Table 6: Rotated Component Matrix





































Table 6 depicts the rotated component matrix table. This table shows the correlation between different items of the research. In this data in component 1 three variables have strong to moderate correlation i.e. 0.776, 0.900, and 0.950 of inner life, equitable compensation and healthy working environment respectively. So from first component it shows that all variables have positive relation. In second component two variables have strong correlation i.e. 0.961 and 0.959. In component 3 only one variable has strong correlation i.e. 0.973. The factor loadings of less than 0.5 are removed from table. Remaining loadings are kept in table and will see that further analysis is possible or not. As it is proved from the above table that most loadings are fall in component one. Higher the values of loadings more the factor contributes to the component.

Table 7:Reliability Analysis


Cronbach’s Alpha

Inner life


Meaningful Work


Sense of Community


Healthy Working Environment


Equitable Compensation


Job Flexibility and Personal Freedom




Reliability statistics shows the internal consistency between the items of questionnaire. Inner life is the dimension of spiritual leadership. For this dimension, the cronbach's alpha is.788 showing that the inner consistency of inner life is very good. The alpha of Cronbach’s is the popular way of discovering the inner consistency. We use this analysis when we use the questionnaire and use likert scale to check the reliability of data.


Table 7 explain the cronbach’s alpha of meaningful work which is also the dimension of spiritual leadership. The value indicates all objects under this dimension's comparatively elevated internal consistency. Total number of objects in this dimension is five.Sense of community is also the dimension of spiritual leadership and cronbach’s alpha is 0.504 which is high then standard value and shows the good internal consistency. This dimension has four items.Above table shows the cronbach’s alpha that is 0.717 of working environment which is the dimension of job satisfaction. This dimension has four items.


Table 7 demonstrates the equitable compensation reliability statistics, which is also the job satisfaction dimension. The alpha of the cronbach’s is 0.671 and there are three issues in this aspect.The cronbach’s alpha of job flexibility and personal freedom is 0.606 it also shows the good internal consistency of all the items in this dimension. Total this dimension has five.Organizational commitment is this research's dependent variable, the alpha value of the cronbach is good, which is 0.625 their individual mean and high standard deviation.





Table 8 Correlation Analyses
















































































Analysis of correlation is used to see the connection between factors. The relation between inner life and organizational commitment is 0.455 which is close to 1 and positive. It is also significant because the P value is less than 0.05 i.e. 0.000. It also proves our first hypothesis that inner life and organizational commitment have positive relationship. Sig (2-tailed)

 values show that is there any statistically significant relation between variables or not. N is the total number of respondents.

Table 8 depicts the relation between meaningful work and organizational commitment. The Pearson’s r value is 0.583which is close to 1 and positive also. So also prove our second hypothesis that these two variables have positive relation and significant.

For our third hypothesis, we find the correlation analysis of sense of community and organizational commitment is 0.629 with the significance of 0.000. The relation between these two is also very good and is very close to 1 and value also shows that its direction is positive and P value shows the relation is also significant.


Table 8 shows the correlation of healthy working environment and organizational commitment with the value of 0.493 which is close to 1 and also positive. The P value is also less than 0.05 so it is also significant. So prove our fourth hypothesis. The relation is positive it means when one variable increase other one is also increased.Pearson’s correlation value of equitable compensation and organizational commitment is 0.442 with significance of 0.000 which shows the positive and significant correlation between variables. Table 8 depicts the relation is highly positive correlated with the value of 0.679. So we use correlation to find out the direction and strength of variables and find out that they are linear or not. With these result sixth hypothesis is also proved.


Table 9: Regression Analysis


R Square

F Value

T Value














































We use regression analysis to find out which variable account more change on other variable. Table 4.20 indicates that the R square value is 0.207, which implies only accountable for the shift in organizational commitment by 20.7 percent. The F value is 56.971 which is above from standard value it means dimension selection is good. F explains the fitness of model. F value shows that the model and dimension is significant. T value of inner life is 7.548 which also show the significance. The beta value is 0.455 it means 1 unit change in this variable bring 45.5% change in dependent variable. So these all values show that our first hypothesis is accepted.


R square value of meaningful work and organizational commitment is 0.339 only 33.9% change is because of meaningful work. The F value if 111.998 which show the model are fit. Therefore, the P value is also less than 0.05. The beta value is 0.583, meaning that 1 unit shift in this variable will alter the dependent variable by 58.3 percent, T value is 10.583 with P value of 0.000 which also shows that it is significant so our second hypothesis is also accepted.


The R square value is 0.395, showing 39.5 percent change in organizational commitment is explained by community sense. Beta value carries 62.9% change in dependent variable. The F value is 142.487 and T value is11.937 and P value is 0.000 these all values show the significance of results.


Table 9 shows the R square value of healthy working environment is 0.240 it means 24% change is explained by this dimension. From ANOVA table it seems that F value is 70.054 with significance of 0.000 and T value is 8.370. Beta shows the 49.3% change in dependent variable if 1 unit change in this dimension. These all results shows the positive and significant relation between these two variables.


Table 9 shows the R square value is 0.195 it means 19.5% variance is explained by equitable compensation in organizational commitment.The F value is 52.860 with significance of 0.000, beta value is 0.442 means 44.2% change in organizational commitment if 1 unit change in equitable compensation. The T value is 7.270 it’s positive so this hypothesis is also proved.

Table 4.9 depicts the R square value is 0.462, 46.2% change in organizational commitment is explained by job flexibility. The ANOVA table shows the F value i.e. 186.929 which is very good means model fitness is good and the significance value is also good. T value is 13.672 which is higher than standard value and beta value is 0.679. If 1 unit increase in this dimension there will be 67.9% change in dependent variable. So last hypothesis is also proved i.e. the relation is positive and significant.

Conclusion & Recommendations




We must demonstrate the relationship between aspects of spiritual leadership and job satisfaction to organizational commitment according to the hypotheses in this study. So from all the results it is proved that they have positive and significant relationship between them. The sample size in the research is 220, in which 133 respondents are males and 87 respondents are females. 35 participants are newly graduated from the outcomes, 10 participants have 1-5 years of experience, while 50 participants have 6-10 years of experience. 71 and 45 participants are between the ages of 16 –20 and 11 –15. 35 participants are between the ages of 18 and 25, while 30 participants are between the ages of 26 and 35. The maximum number of participants is between the ages of 46 and 55, i.e. 64.

The alpha value of all sizes is acceptable at an appropriate rate according to the reliability analysis. 0.788,0.771,0.504,0.717,0.617 and 0.605 are the alpha values of inner life, meaningful work, sense of community, healthy working environment, equitable compensation and job flexibility and personal freedom respectively. Reliability measures the internal consistency between the variables. We can also say that it is used to measure the scale reliability it shows that how much your data is reliable and give you good results. Results show that consistency between inner life and organizational commitment is good. The internal consistencies between all other dimensions are also good with organizational commitment.

In correlation analysis we found the value of Pearson’s correlation. In this analysis we measure the two main things that is strength and direction of relation between the variables. If the value is higher than zero, it will show a positive association between the factors and if the value is favourable, it will mean a positive direction. From the results inner life has 0.455, meaningful work has 0.583, sense of community has 0.629, healthy working environment has 0.493, equitable compensation has 0.442 and job flexibility and personal freedom has 0.679 Pearson’s correlation value. These are all beneficial values so that the direction of the relationship also implies that if one variable also increases the other variable and vice versa. So, all our hypotheses are proved from above results that they have positive relation between the variables.

Regression analysis gave us different values of different items. We found R square value, F value, T value, Beta value, and significant value. When we talk about the R square value, it demonstrates how much change is explained by another variable in one variable. Like the R square value in inner life is 0.455, this implies that the inner life explains 45.5 percent change in organizational commitment. The R square value of sense of community is 0.395 it means 39.5% change is explained by this variable.

F value shows the goodness of model and the standard value of F value is 6. From the results the F value of all variables are more than 6. The F value of inner life is 56.971, meaningful work is 111.998, sense of community is 142.487, healthy working environment is 70.054, equitable compensation is 52.860 and job flexibility and personal freedom is 186.929. These values show that the model is fit and more than the standard value. Equitable compensation F value is 52.860 it means the selection of this variable is also good.  All F values show that the selection of variables is good.

T value and significant value help us to show that the results are significant or not. It is also the main point to prove our hypotheses. The t value of meaningful work is 10,583, which is more than a standard value with a meaning of 0.00, meaning that the relationship between meaningful work and organizational commitment is significant. When we combine the result of correlation and regression it shows that the meaningful work has positive and significant relation with organizational commitment. The t value of inner life is 0.455 with zero meaning, which implies that the relationship between inner life and organizational commitment is also positive and meaningful.

The t value of sense of community is 10.583 with 0.00 significance; it shows positive and significant relation between two variables. Healthy working environment has 11.937 t value its relation is also positive and significant. Equitable compensation has a value of 7.270 t and its relationship with organizational commitment is also positive and substantial. 13.672 is the value of flexibility in employment and personal freedom and thus proves that the last hypothesis of flexibility in employment and personal freedom is a favourable and substantial relationship with organizational commitment.

Beta value indicates how much they affect the dependent variable when changing in 1 unit in an independent variable. In the inner life beta value is 0.455 it means that if 1 unit changes in the inner life, the organizational commitment will change 45.5 percent. Significant beta job value is 0.583, meaning that if 1 unit shift in this variable will happen 58.3 percent change in organizational commitment. 0.629 is the beta value of sense of community so if 1 unit change in sense of community 62.9% change will observe in organizational commitment. Equitable compensation has beta value of 0.442 so if 1 unit change in equitable compensation 44.2% change will occur in organizational commitment. 0.679 is the beta value of job flexibility and personal freedom so 67.9% change will observe in organizational commitment if 1 unit change in job flexibility and personal freedom occurred.

So from all the above analysis it is proved that all hypotheses are accepted they have positive and significant relationship. Literature review of all these variables also showed that they have positive relationship and past literature also supports my research.




When doing the research so many things are considered and explored. When employee is satisfied from the organization in all means it shows that he or she should be committed to the organization. Banking sector of Pakistan also have different facilities for the employees because they want their employees to be committed because they want to avoid the long procedure of recruiting, selection, training etc. All organisations want to retain their skilled worker and they provide them with all the equipment for this purpose because, if the worker is happy, he is dedicated to the organisation and because of all these, the organisation performs well.Regardless of all this we want to give some recommendations about the banking sector in Pakistan.

It is obvious from the literature that spiritual leadership helps in commitment of employees so if employee is internally happy, they give meaning to their work and their social surrounding is also good so they are highly committed to the organization. So create these surroundings to make them more committed.  Job flexibility is also very important. In this era of modernization empowerment is very important for the good performance and overall success of the organizations. If organizations facilitate employees with empowerment to performing job roles and flexibility in personal freedom than it will increase the commitment with organization. For example if employee have some important work to do at home and ask for coming late so manager should give flexibility because he know that this employee also worked in organization after working hours. So these types of flexibilities are very important to make the employee more committed. If employee’s necessities are fulfilled by organization and top managers also appraise his work than he will never think about quitting that job. Social environment in organization is also enhancing the commitment of employee. If the colleagues in the office are not good or you are disturbed with some colleagues then you are mentally not satisfied with the place. These all are the dimensions of spiritual leadership. It means the employee should be spiritually satisfied.

Actually commitment and satisfaction is come together. Job satisfaction is usually described as how an individual is happy with his or her job and can be described as "how individuals feel about their allocated duties or employment and distinct facets of their job or job" (Spector, 1997).Healthy work environment is related to extrinsic satisfaction which is often explained as external job facets such as work environment which have influence worker attitudes and behavior. Extrinsic satisfaction is also referred to as hygiene factors in which it relates to fair compensation, interpersonal workers ' associations, policy and administration supervisors, secure and healthy working environments, opportunities for development, social integration, constitutionalism in the organization of work, working conditions and complete living space, social significance of working life, status and job safety. If an employer does not generate excellent working circumstances and their associated variables as a healthy job setting, employees will not be satisfied with their job.

About equitable compensation we mostly talk about salary and pay fairness. (Adams, 1963) described that people are more worried about the fairness of their input or performance compared to comparable individuals or groups or individuals with the same input in the same work. So if organizations want to commit their employee so pay policies should be good and on fair basis.

Spiritual leader’s job is to inspire their followers to develop a connection with a sense of community. Spiritual leaders support their followers in developing a connection with their work. They help them to see the opportunities how they do makes positivity as compared to others or to other world. If the job incumbents or followers work only for the paycheck, If their kids and their future generations have no thought, their objective is to achieve a private objective, not a spiritual one.If they firmly believe in their work that has the potential to change the nation, world, and do excellent things for their children, people, or the generation to come, then their efforts and personal satisfaction will be as great as spirituality.

Future Research


For further inquiry of spiritual management, job satisfaction and phenomenon of organizational commitment, the following topics can be regarded:

1.      As an independent variable and organizational commitment, we took spiritual leadership and job satisfaction as a dependent variable in this studies. We can also take one of the variables as mediators in the future and see the relationship between them by implementing various analyzes.

2.      Control factors can also be changed to see the effect on results.

3.      Present research follows the trend of some towns, future study needs to obtain information from other Pakistani provinces in order to examine a better knowledge of the model.

4.      Dimensions of these variables can also be change by following past research. Then create new model to see the relationship.

5.      Present research data is collected from banking sector, in future data can be selected from other sectors to find out the results.



While doing research we observed some issues, following are the limitations of this research:

1.      In Pakistan banking sectors are very sensitive and entrance for some research purpose is not an easy task. So getting access to the managerial level was difficult for us and followed a proper procedure to get acceptance.

2.      In banking sectors employees are not allowed to share any personal information so may be answers are not 100% true.

3.      In data collection process, employees took a long time to reply because they are busy whole day in dealing customers, so we had wait a lot for collecting data.

4.      Most of the time employees are not aware about the terms used in research so we explained them about the main theme and for this we also had to wait because for their busy schedule. 



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