Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF): 6.56
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Role of Emotional Intelligence in Determining Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Employee Performance: Special Reference to Banking Employees of the Rajasthan Region


Dr. Richa Chauhan

Assistant Professor,

Banasthali Vidyapith



Dr. Nidhi Maheshwari

Associate Professor,

Delhi Technological University, Delhi




This study will cover the impact of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) occupational performance. The study will add knowledge to existing literature regarding EI, OCB, and occupational performance and also identify the incredible role of Emotional Intelligence at the workplace and how organizational citizenship behavior affects occupant’s performance. The study examined the impact of Emotional Intelligence on OCB and occupational performance. Data was collected through a questionnaire with 339 respondents. The sample size was determined using Cocharan’s formula. Emotions, if exhibited intelligently, are very constructive and play an essential role in success. It was found that the employees' emotional intelligence and service orientation potentially increase their likelihood of developing sustained careers within the respective industry/field. Emotional Intelligence has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior. OCB is a collection of conscious behavior of individuals. Although without an executive obligation and not subject to the conventional reward system, it has a considerable impact on workplace performance. The study would also provide information that if organizations wanted to flourish, they must amplify employee emotional intelligence skills to occupation efficiently in the workplace.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, occupational performance, employees, Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)



Emotional Intelligence is a kind of Intelligence which wraps skills to be familiar with and to persuade the emotions. The expression emotion originated from the Latin expression ‘emoveo,' which means ‘to move from. ’There are six world-wide emotions-annoyance, terror, sorrow, cheerfulness, repulsion, and disclosure–with the majority of emotions incorporated within these six groups (Robbins and Judge, 2009). Each practice and share these feelings and emotions. EI is the division of societal Intelligence that includes the capability to examine perceptions and emotions and to exercise it to direct individual thoughts and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).Several researchers recommend that EI be cultured and strengthened, while others argue it is a natural trait. EI is one of the components that can play an essential part in the connection between staff and supervisors with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Luxmi & Vashisht, 2013; Sharma & Mahajan,2017; Narayanan,2016; Turnipseed,2018). It can be said that performing their duties and responsibilities effectively and efficiently employees contribute towards the improvement of organizations functioning (Narayanan, 2016). Hence, at the present age, the importance of organization citizens is perceived as one of the most important sources of the organization. Their behavior can be viewed as very important too. OCB is a collection of conscious actions of individuals, and although without an executive obligation and not subject to a conventional reward system, it has a considerable impact on workplace performance.


Conceptual Framework

EI (Emotional Intelligence):- It defined as a person’s self-assurance, discipline, dedication, truthfulness & individual capability to converse, persuade, instigate, and acknowledge transformations. Goleman's construction for strong aptitude is divided into two kinds. At former, a personal skill that underline show we cope up (self-assurance, discipline, and drive), the subsequent class is societal capability. Look at how we administer our associations & include compassion and interpersonal skills with a rationale. Followings are the models for measuring Emotional intelligence:


Ability based Model:- EI is the ability to articulate emotions, accustom emotions in consideration, understand & put off emotions, display them in the person, and others"(Mayer&Salovey,1997).

Trait Model:- Trait model anticipates that people have many emotional self-observations and behaviours that contour their character. It incorporates emotional perception & psychological traits (K.V. Petrides, 2009).

Mixed Model: - EI, "a collection of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures" (Bar-on,1997).EI is characterized as an individual's self-assurance, discipline,     truthfulness, responsibility, morality, to develop, and accept alteration (Goleman, 1995).

Occupational Performance:- Occupational performance can be defined as the capability to execute those responsibilities that make it feasible to carry out professional roles in a pleasant manner that is suitable to the individual's developmental stage, culture, and surroundings (Llorens, 1991).Occupation refers to“ everyday activities, "which are essential for a human being, and they help in defining a person’s existence. (AOTA, 2008; Baum & Christiansen,2005).

 Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): OCB is a growing concept regarding how and why people should positively contribute to their organization beyond their described work roles. In 1988, Organ wrote the growing definition that OCB as "individual behavior that is optional, not easily understandable by the formal reward system, as it is not restricted to formal job range, as it increases the final performance of organization". Organ, therefore, updated his definition; the portrait of OCB has upgraded, where it is defined as "the individual behavior that supports the social and psychological performance of the organization" (Organ,1997).

Emotional Intelligence and Occupational Performance:-Research illustrates that individual with high EI has a better professional achievement, work presentation; cultivate stronger interpersonal relations, practical management skills than those with low EI (Cooper, 1997). John J. Sosik, Lara E. Megerian (1999) explains that there is a constructive association between EI aspects, leader behaviour & success. EI ropes the superior and subordinates to be familiar with their emotions and using them to administer association with others(DalipSingh,2001), also coupled with cognitive abilities which help human beings to understand those sentiments which smooth the progress of opinion by awareness, assessment and appearance of emotions (Mayeretal., 2001).Furthermore, it facilitates them to formulate rational decisions and demonstrate liable conduct(Berkering et al., 2008).

EI is considered as encouraging aspect adjacent to occupation pressures. It diminishes the pessimistic effects of stress by handling emotions and thoughts of the workforce & facilitates affirmative emotion & reinforces the main opposition to over tiredness, which has reciprocated relation with psychological health. Job contentment also implies one's zeal and satisfaction with the occupation. Kaliski(2007) noted that high job contentment is the mean that escorts to appreciation, earnings, promotion & the accomplishment of further goals that accompany a feeling of fulfilment. Kenneth J. Kleppel (2007) explains that emotional intelligence plays a vital role in success. Relationship Management, leadership, decision making, conflict resolution, etc. are essential skills, but at the same time, emotional intelligence also plays a decisive role in determining one’s performance. EI shows a substantial part in the construction, development, and maintenance of individual connections, and foundation factors of EI are how and when a human being uses communication approaches (Mosavi,2009).

Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB):

Singh and Modassir (2007) studied the association of EI with transformational leadership and OCB with descriptive research. The result stated that leaders with EI increase the followers of organizational citizenship behavior. Also, leaders with emotional Intelligence are not the only determining factor with the perception of transformational leadership. Salarzehi et al. (2011) study says that having good Emotional Intelligence in staff lean to help other staff workers as well, to those having problems in performing.

Along with the research, they also proposed that employees should start recognizing their strong and weak points and identify their emotions and feelings. The study found that employees who have a higher level of self-recognition are gifted to identify their capabilities, including compassion. Employees should start communicating their emotions productively to come up with their work beyond the manager's expectations. Employees with high EI and advanced citizen behavior able to work even in the worst condition. They should start recognizing their emotion and abilities in the stressed situation before doing any inappropriate action. Turnip seed et al. (2012), studied on the EI and OCB of University Professors with descriptive research and the result stated, that with the increasing need of emotional Intelligence in education, healthcare, etc., organizations, interpersonal activities level automatically increases, as emotional Intelligence intends to grow organizational citizenship behavior by improving social and interpersonal relationships. Hanzaeea and  Mirvaisib (2013), observed the impact of emotional Intelligence, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction on employee's Performance in the Iranian hotel industry in with descriptive research and results stated that there is a positive impact of emotional Intelligence on organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, and employee performance. As if the employees understand, control, and use their emotions wisely, it will have a direct impact on OCB. With this, it will create a positive working environment and improve organizational outcomes. Hakim et al. (2013), research on Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment as forecaster changing Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (work on Community Health employee in City of Kendari) with descriptive study and the results state that EI & OC can serve as a predictor variable of OCB. EI has a positive effect on improving the OCB. Raeissi et al. (2015), research on Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behaviours with descriptive study and the study was conducted at the Islamic Azad University of Chabahar and their organizational citizenship behavior in their academic year 2014-2015. The result of the reading stated that there is a connection between emotional Intelligence and staff members of the university and conscience and civic behavior parts of organizational citizenship behavior. There is no substantial connection linking emotional intelligence and altruism, dignity, courtesy, and consideration as parts of organizational citizenship behavior. Narayanan (2016) conducted a study on the effect of emotional Intelligence on organizational citizenship Behaviour with descriptive research. The result stated the definite link between emotional Intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior and concluded that EI & OCB increases with increase with age. Gan et al. (2018), researched Does Emotional Intelligence Influence Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among Engineers? A Conceptual Paper, with conceptual research and Jen Ling Gan et al., found that low attention was paid towards engineers. From now on, more care needs to be paid to the relationship between the emotional Intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior variables to the engineers in engineering related companies.


Objectives of the study:-

  1. To investigate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
  2. To assess the impact of Emotional Intelligence on Occupational Performance.
  3. To study the impact of organizational citizenship behavior on occupational Performance.


Methodology: This study seeks to study the association between emotional Intelligence, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and occupational performance, for that analytical and descriptive design of research, was used.  For supporting the theoretical perspectives between different variables, the inter-correlational research approach was applied to know the relationship between Occupational Performance as the dependent variable and the OCB and emotional Intelligence as independent (predictor) variables. Judgmental, convenience, and snowball sampling were used for data collection. Data was collected through a standardized questionnaire from banking employees of the Rajasthan region. For measuring employees emotional Intelligence of survey (composed of 16 measure items) was taken from Naseer et al. (2011), for OCB questionnaire (consisting of 8 measure items) was taken from Singh and Kolekar (2015) and for Performance (composed of 18 measure items) Goodman and  Svyantek,1999). Overall, 339 questionnaires were collected, and the sample size was determined using Cocharan’s formula. The responses of respondents were analyzed using Correlation through PLS-SEM.

Table- 1 Data Collection




First Attempt



Second Attempt



Third Attempt




Hypothesis Testing-To confirm the accuracy of the findings related to the study, the researcher would test the validity of the subsequent hypotheses.

Ha1: There is a constructive relationship between EI factors & OCB.

Ha2: Employees having higher EI have higher Occupational Performance.

Ha3: There is an association between Organizational Citizenship behavior and Occupational Performance.



The model reliability and validity were tested on the underlying significance of factor loadings, Composite Reliability, Average Variance Extracted, Discriminant Validity, and Cronbach Alpha. Items that load high on their respective variables ensure convergent validity. Items have loading above the cut-off value of 0.5 are acceptable (Hair et al., 2011). Hence, items with a cut-off value of 0.5 were eliminated from the instrument. The Cronbach alpha coefficient values (α) of all the variables exceeded the acceptable cut-off value of 0.70 (refer tables 2 & 3).

Table 2 Measurement model testing results


Cronbach alpha   

Composite reliability















Table 3 Fornell-Larcker criterium


















Discriminant validity confirms when the item loads the highest on its variable. The Fornell-Larcker criterium satisfied the criteria for discriminant validity where the thing loads highest on its item. Hence, discriminant validity confirmed (refer to Table 3).





Figure 1 Measurement and structural Model





Mateos-Aparicio(2011) explained that PLS-SEM evaluates the factors of a set of equations in a structural equation model by conjoining key components analysis with regression-based path analysis. Chin (1998) said in management research, PLS is becoming popular as it is based on an iterative blend of principal components analysis and regression. It explains the variance of the construct in the Model.

Table 4 Evaluation of structural Model




T Values

P Values


EI                 OCB





Hypothesis Supported

EI                 Performance





Hypothesis Supported







Hypothesis Supported

In the structural model, the EI (β=0.74, p=0.00) has a significant positive relationship with the OCB, and EI (β= 0.36, p=0.00) also has a positive connection with the Performance of employees. In the structural Model, all paths support the hypotheses H1, H2, and H3 by showing significant positive cut-off values, which indicates that all the constructs have a meaningful positive relationship among them. The results are consistent with the hypotheses, and therefore researcher rejects the null hypothesis. The F2value between 0.02-0.15 reflects a small effect size; between 0.15-0.35 reflects medium effect size, and between 0.35 and above, it reflects a large effect size. EI has a medium-size effect (F2=0.36) on Performance, and OCB has (F2=0.49) has a significant effect size on Performance (refer table 4). 

The analysis explains that there is EI has an impact on the Performance of employees, not more than Organizational citizenship behavior, which Means EI leads to Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, which in turn leads to the Performance of employees. The dimensions of emotional Intelligence: self-emotion appraisal, use of emotions, emotion appraisal of others, and regulation of emotions have a significant impact on conscientiousness, courtesy, helping behavior, and sportsmanship among employees. Therefore, it was found that Emotional Intelligence and OCB together influence employee performance at the workplace.



Conclusion: The current study highlights the significance of OCB (Organizational Citizenship Behaviour) in organizations and EI. Watkin(2000) and Goleman(1998) explained that EI is a prophet of one’s accomplishment. In this addition, Slaski and Cart wright(2002) demonstrated that performance and EI have a constructive relationship. It was found that emotional intelligence and service orientation of the employees’ potentially increase their likelihood of developing sustained careers with in the respective industry/field. Emotional Intelligence is increasingly being acknowledged as a significant input to professional success in today’s high-stress environment. Organizations must pay attention to the development of employees EI to create positive OCB. And also ought to give adequate importance to emotional Intelligence as they are critical antecedents for organizational citizenship behavior. OCB has a positive influence on various organizational factors like employee commitment, job satisfaction, employee turnover, and productivity, etc. (Thiagarajan & Yabesh, 2017; Podsakoff et al., 2009). Thus for the successful accomplishment of goals and objectives, emotional Intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour plays a vital role.



  • Mohamad, M., & Jais, J. (2016). Emotional intelligence and job performance: A study among Malaysian teachers. Procedia Economics and Finance35, 674-682.
  • Douglas, C., Ferris, A. P., Ammeter, P. S., & Buckle, M. R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, leadership effectiveness, and team outcomes. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis11(1), 21-40.
  • Homayouni, A. (2011). Personality traits and emotional intelligence as predictors of learning english and math. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences30, 839-843.
  • Mayer, J. D. (1997). „What Is Emotional Intelligence,‟ In Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence, eds. JD Mayer, P. Salovey and DJ Sluyter.
  • Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. RJ Sternberg (ed.).
  • Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York, NY, England.
  • Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam.
  • Goleman, D. (2005). Emotional intelligence. Bantam.
  • Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema18, 13-25..
  • Singh, T., & Modassir, A. (2007). Relationship of emotional intelligence with transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. IIM Bangalore Research Paper, (262).
  • Salarzehi, H., & Forouharfar, A. (2011). Understanding barriers to intrapreneurship in work and social affairs governmental organization (A Case Study in Iran).
  • Hanzaee, K., & Mirvaisi, M. (2013). A survey on impact of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction on employees’ performance in Iranian hotel industry. Management Science Letters3(5), 1395-1402.
  • Hakim, A., Awaluddin, H. I., & Hakim, A. A. (2013). Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment as Predictor Variables Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Study on Employee of Community Health Centers in City of Kendari). International Journal of Science and Research, 2319-7064.
  • Raeissi, A., Rezaeian, H., & Chakarzahi, A. (2015). Does Organizational Spirituality Predict Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Employees?. International Journal of Behavioral Research & Psychology (IJBRP)3(2), 75-78.
  • Narayanan, K. (2016). The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Asian Journal Of Management Research7(2), 154-169.
  • Turnipseed, D. L., & Vandewaa, E. A. (2012). Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior. Psychological reports110(3), 899-914.
  • Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European journal of personality15(6), 425-448.
  • Cooper, R. K. (1997). Applying emotional intelligence in the workplace. Training & development51(12), 31-39.
  • Sosik, J. J., & Megerian, L. E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions. Group & organization management24(3), 367-390.
  • Jorfi, H., Jorfi, S., & Moghadam, K. (2010). Impact of emotional intelligence on performance of employees. Postmodern Openings4(1), 63-74.
  • Zadeh, A. N., & Tabrizi, A. M. (2014). Study of predicting marriage satisfaction based on emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence and self-efficiency. Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches4(4), 160-166.
  • Gardner, L., & Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadership & organization development journal.
  • Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence. Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications3, 31.
  • Nasir, F., & Munaf, S. (2011). Emotional Intelligence and Academics of Adolescents: A Correlational and Gender Comparative Study. Journal of Behavioural Sciences21(2).
  • Thiagarajan, T., Yabesh, I.(2017) ‘organizational citizenship behavior: its definitions and dimensions’, GE- International Journal of Management Research,5 No.5, pp.46-55
  • Fornell, C., & Bookstein, F. L. (1982). Two structural equation models: LISREL and PLS applied to consumer exit-voice theory. Journal of Marketing research19(4), 440-452.
  • Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice19(2), 139-152.
  • Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the academy of marketing science40(3), 414-433.
  • Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). European business review.
  • Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern methods for business research295(2), 295-336.
  • Chin, W. W and Newsted, P. R. (1999) ‘Structural Equation Modeling Analysis with Small Samples Using Partial Least Squares’. In Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research. Ed. R. H. Hoyle. Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp. 307-341.
  • Goodman, Scott A., and Daniel J. Svyantek. "Person–organization fit and contextual performance: Do shared values matter." Journal of vocational behavior2 (1999): 254-275.
  • Aziri, B. (2011). JOB SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW. Management Research & Practice3(4).
  • Kleppel, K. J. (2007). Emotional intelligence is key to success. Ohio Law.21, 18.
  • Hardy, P. (2004). Powered wheelchair mobility: An occupational performance evaluation perspective. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal51(1), 34-42.
  • Barson, D. (2011). Profiling prospective leaders through emotional intelligence(Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).
  • O'Connor Jr, R. M., & Little, I. S. (2003). Revisiting the predictive validity of emotional intelligence: Self-report versus ability-based measures. Personality and Individual differences35(8), 1893-1902.
  • Furnham,A.(2008).Introduction Intelligence at Wor In Management Intelligence (pp.1-26). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Fiske, S. T., &Taylor, S.E. (2013).Social cognition: From brains to culture. Sage.
  • Brown, R.B.(2003).Emotions and behavior: Exercises in emotional Intelligence. Journal of Management Education,27(1),122-
  • Assanova, M., & McGuire, M.(2009). Applicability analysis of the emotional intelligence theory. Indiana Univers Retrieved July, 21, 2010.
  • Kanner,L.(1931). Judging emotions from facial expressions. Psychological Monographs,41(3)
  • Wong, C.S., & Law, K.S.(2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on Performance and attitude:An exploratory study. The leadership quarterly,13(3),243-
  • Petrides,K.V., and Furnham,A.(2000),On the dimensional structure of emotional Intelligence, Personality and Individual Differences,29, 13–320.