Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.396
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

 

Relationship of the Positive Psychological Capital and Organizational Justice Perception: Comparison of Turkey and Kosovo

 

Ensar Selman Karagüzel

Lecturer,

Sakarya University of Applied Science,

Kaynarca Seyfettin Selim Vocational School,

Sakarya, Turkey, ekaraguzel@subu.edu.tr

ORCID: 0000-0001-7804-2209

 

Mehmet Bağış

Assistant Professor,

Sakarya University of Applied Science,

Faculty of Applied Sciences,

International Trade and Finance,

Sakarya, Turkey, mehmetbagis@subu.edu.tr

ORCID: 0000-0002-3392-3376

 

 

Abstract

This study analyzes the effect of positive psychological capital on organizational justice. The research was conducted with quantitative research methods, and the research data were collected from Turkey and Kosovo. In the analysis of research data, t-test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis were used. Research findings show that there were statistically significant differences in positive psychological capital and organizational justice perceptions between the participants living in Kosovo and Turkey. Moreover, research findings indicated that positive psychological capital affected organizational justice perception. Besides, it was ascertained that, in Kosovo, the psychological resilience and hope sub-dimensions of the positive psychological capital had statistically significant effects on the organizational justice perception while optimism and self-efficacy sub-dimensions of the positive psychological capital had no statistically significant effect on it. Lastly, it was found that all sub-dimensions of the positive psychological capital except optimism had statistically significant effects on the organizational justice perception in Turkey.

Keywords: Positive Psychological Capital (PPC), Organizational Justice (OJ), Cross-Country Study, Kosovo, Turkey.

Introduction

As a branch of science analyzing human behaviors, psychology is heavily used in social science research and practice. A research stream that emerged in organizational behavior research in recent years by using the psychology discipline is inclined to focus on human beings’ positive behaviors rather than their negative behaviors. This research stream also known as the positive psychological capital analyzes the positive characteristics peculiar to human beings such as self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and psychological resilience (Sheldon & King, 2001:216). Another noteworthy research stream in the domain of business in general and organizational behavior in particular is the organizational justice together with this concept. The phenomenon of justice is a concept that was studied by philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, Nozick, and Rawls. For instance, John Rawls referred to justice as the first virtue of social institutions (Fırat, 2003; 123). It is discerned that the first studies about social justice generally aimed at explaining the justice principles in social interactions, and they did not focus particularly on the concept of organizational justice (Özmen et al., 2005: 161). However, it is ascertained that the organizational approaches which were developed in recent years focused on the organizational problems arising from the interaction between individuals. Accordingly, by taking into account also the phenomenon of justice in intra-organizational relations, the concept of organizational justice was developed upon the adaptation of the concept of social justice to the studies on the organization (İşbaşı, 2001: 54).

In this framework, in this research, the effect of positive psychological capital on organizational justice perception was analyzed. The study is comprised of five parts including the introduction. In the following second part of the study, research hypotheses were presented upon exploring the studies in the literature relevant to positive psychological capital and organizational justice. In the third part of the study, the research methodology was introduced. The fourth part is made up of the research findings and the evaluations about these findings. Lastly, the research came to an end with the conclusion and recommendations for the prospective research studies.

Literature Review

Positive Psychological Capital

The field of positive psychology was launched in 1998 by Martin Seligman, the President of the American Psychological Association. For Seligman (2004), positive psychology examines the phenomena which make the life for the individuals worth living, how the individuals can manage their lives in the environment where they live and how they can better adapt to this environment (Seligman, 2002:3). The field of positive psychology aims to tempt psychologists to focus on healthy individuals rather than pathological ones. This field of study which considers courage, hope, and determination as the strengths for the individuals asserts that, with these strengths, human beings’ well-being can be enhanced and mental disorders can be avoided before the cases emerge (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000:5-7).

Luthans, Youssef, and Avolio (2006) defined positive psychological capital as the individual’s positive psychological development state. This capital pertains to ‘who an individual is’ and, in a developmental sense, ‘who the individual can be’. Positive psychological capital is a concept that comes into being along with the combination of a person’s characteristics such as self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience and denotes that the person is more than the whole which is made up of all these characteristics (Lupsa et al. 2020). For instance, hopeful human beings are more optimistic and resilient as they designate their own ways of reaching success. That is to say, each component of the positive psychological capital is in interaction with the other one. Hence, each component adds a quality to the concept of positive psychological capital, and the resulting whole that is made up of all these added qualities defines a new concept that is different from the one made by its individual components (Luthans et al. 2006).

The positive psychological capital has four sub-dimensions, that is, self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and psychological resilience. Self-efficacy is defined as human beings’ beliefs in their individual abilities (Gardner & Pierce, 1998). This definition pertains to the fulfillment/achievement of a specific task (Luthans, 2002a, p. 60). The employees who perceive themselves as self-efficacious attain successful outcomes by making sufficient efforts. On the other hand, employees with low self-efficacy are inclined to surrender soon (Stajkovic&Luthans, 1998).

The second sub-dimension of positive psychological capital is hope. This concept is defined as a positive motivational state with which a person is equipped for reaching a goal (Snyder, 2000). As well as being a significant leadership trait, hope makes it possible for the employees to reach their goals. Optimism as the third sub-dimension of the positive psychological capital is the interpretation style that attributes the positive incidents to personal, permanent, and general reasons and the negative incidents to external, temporary, and situational factors (Seligman, 1998: 43). In other words, optimism is a concept that reflects human beings’ positive expectations about the future. Optimist people assume that they will be faced with good things whereas pessimist people think that they will be confronted with bad situations (Carver, Scheier, &Segerstrom, 2010). Optimism is defined as the situation in which the individuals refer to internal, permanent, and generalizable reasons for accounting for positive incidents while they refer to external, temporary, and situational reasons for explaining negative incidents. Thus, optimist individuals have an optimistic perspective about the future (Akçay, 2012).

Lastly, the fourth sub-dimension of the positive psychological capital is psychological resilience. This sub-dimension refers to the competence in coping successfully with a significant change, trouble, or risk with which the individuals are likely to be confronted. This competence of the individuals can change over time and can gain or lose strength depending on the individual’s own characteristics and the protective factors in the environment (Luthans, 2002, p. 702). Resilience provides the opportunity not only to have reactive recovery but also to learn and grow proactively by overcoming the challenges. In other words, resilience can handle both negative setbacks and positive but potentially challenging incidents (Youssef &Luthans, 2007, 778).

Organizational Justice

Organizational justice refers to the employees’ perceptions about to what extent they are treated fairly in the organizations (Greenberg, 1990). Organizational justice has three dimensions, that is, distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice (Bies&Moag, 1986). Distributive justice pertains to whether the resources such as the wage, awards, wage increase, or promotions are distributed fairly or not. As per this phenomenon of justice, the individuals evaluate whether the distribution is fair or not by comparing their wages to the wages earned by the others. If no information about the wages earned by the others is available, then the individual questions whether his/her wage is sufficient or not. Through these comparisons, the individual evaluates the distributive justice (Cropanzano& Greenberg, 1997:6). Procedural justice is the person’s evaluation of to what extent the decision-making procedures and processes and the way of distributing the gains are fair. This dimension of organizational justice is about how the issues such as the distribution of the wage increases, settlement of the employee disputes, and performance evaluations are addressed (Cropanzano& Stein, 2009:19). Lastly, transactional justice is the organizational justice dimension which refers to the quality of the behaviors observed between the individuals in the organization. The research conducted on this phenomenon of justice evaluates whether the relations between the employees themselves and between the employees and the managers are fair or not. Interactional justice refers to the justice which is perceived by the individual in the interpersonal behaviors when a procedure is implemented in an organization. Even if interactional justice seems to be categorized under procedural justice, it differs from the concept of procedural justice. Interactional justice relates more to the interpersonal relations during the procedures and justice in this process (Khan et al., 2015).

The effect of positive psychological capital on organizational justice was explored through the cross-country comparison of Kosovo and Turkey. The reason for including these two countries in the research is that they have differences in light of the cultural dimensions put forward by Hofstede et al. (2010). The first of these dimensions is power distance. The power distance can be defined as the degree to which individuals in the institutions and organizations in a country expect and agree that power is distributed unequally. Hereby, the institutions represent the basic elements of the society such as the family and school while the organizations refer to the human beings’ workplaces (Hofstede, 1983). Upon the review of Kosovo[1] and Turkey in the context of power distance, it was  discerned that Kosovo had a higher power distance than Turkey did. The second dimension is masculinity/femininity. If the emotional gender roles are apparently different, then society is called masculine. In masculine societies, men are supposed to be assertive and aggressive and focus on material success whilst women are expected to be modest and sensitive and be concerned with the quality of life. If the gender roles overlap with each other, then the society is called feminine. Both men and women are supposed to be modest and sensitive and be concerned with the quality of life (Hofstede, 1980). As per the cross-country comparison of Kosovo and Turkey in the context of masculinity/femininity, it is discerned that Kosovo was more masculine than Turkey was while Turkey was more feminine than Kosovo was. The third dimension to be employed for making a comparison between the two countries is indulgence. This concept refers to the inclination to allow the relatively free satisfaction of the basic and natural human desires about enjoying life and having entertainment. The restraint as the opposite of indulgence represents the belief that such satisfaction should be inhibited and organized by the strict social norms (Hofstede, 2011). Upon the comparison of the two countries in terms of indulgence dimension, it is ascertained that the indulgence level of Kosovo was lower than Turkey. On the other hand, as per the other cultural dimensions set forth by Hofstede, namely, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation, it is considered that the differences between the two countries were negligible.

As it is viewed, the two countries have differences in terms of power distance, masculinity/femininity, and indulgence dimensions. Additionally, there are differences between the two countries with respect to the economic development levels and institutions. While Kosovo is grouped within the transition (undeveloped) countries, Turkey is a developing (emerging) economy. Based on these differences, it is acknowledged that there will also be differences in economic and political institutions between the two countries because Turkey is a relatively long-established country whereas Kosovo is a country that declared its independence recently. Thus, it was undeniable to have differences in both the positive psychological capital and the organizational justice perception between the two countries. On the other hand, it should be noted that these differences were mentioned in this study not for revealing the cultural differences between two countries. Rather, just by highlighting the aspects in which the two countries had differences, it was considered that there could be differences in positive psychological capital and organizational justice perception between the two countries. Moreover, based on the effects of the dimensions of positive psychological capital on organizational justice perception, it was assumed that statistically significant differences could be found between the two countries. In this framework, the first and second hypotheses of the research were presented below:

H1- There is a statistically significant difference in positive psychological capital perceptions between Turkey and Kosovo.

H2- There is a statistically significant difference in organizational justice perceptions between Turkey and Kosovo.

In the relevant literature, the effect of organizational justice on the positive psychological capital was analyzed. Previous studies indicate that a fair organizational climate affected the employees’ psychological capital significantly (Qadeer and Jaffery, 2014). Likewise, in certain studies, it was inferred that the managers developed their subordinates’ psychological capital by providing fair treatment and promoting organizational justice through supportive supervision (Luthans et al. 2008; Walumbwa et al. 2011). In another study, it was stated that the distributive, procedural, and interactional justice would affect the employees’ emotions and psychological capital in the organizations (Thomas &Ganster, 1995).

Most research studies performed on organizational justice are aimed at understanding and analyzing the results that organizational justice gives rise to in the organizations. The effects of organizational justice on organizational loyalty, organizational citizenship, performance, labor turnover, employees’ psychological state, and their attitudes are among the previously analyzed topics. However, the reasons leading up to organizational justice and the precursors of organizational justice are among the less frequently studied topics.

Organizational outputs, organizational practices, demographic structure, and personal characteristics are among the precursors of organizational justice (Cohen-Charash& Spector, 2001). In a study, it was asserted that individuals’ perceptions about the organizational outputs affected the organizational justice perceptions (Greenberg, 1994). Likewise, organizational practices such as those allowing the employees to make their voices heard by the management are among the factors changing the employees’ organizational justice perceptions.

Another factor to be considered as a precursor of the organizational justice perception is the demographic factors. The studies which analyzed the relationship of the demographic characteristics with the organizational justice perception revealed that a person’s gender, race, or age could account for the justice perception in terms of the person’s personal interests or egocentric judgments. In a research study by Brockner and Adsit (1986), it was found that the men reacted more to the inequality than the women did. This finding indicates that justice is perceived differently as per gender (Cohen-Charash& Spector, 2001).

Even if the studies performed on the effect of organizational justice on the positive psychological capital are present in the relevant literature, there are a limited number of studies about the effect of the positive psychological capital on the organizational justice perception. In the previous studies, it is discerned that the positive psychological capital was in interaction with organizational justice. It is set forth that, just as the employees’ psychological capital perceptions were enhanced in the businesses where there was a high level of organizational justice perception, the employees with high-level positive psychological capital perceived the organizations as fairer settings (Lupsa et al., 2020). Likewise, in the study by Wanberg, Bunce, and Gavin (1999), it is put forward that the people with negative emotional traits express negative emotions about the time period and circumstances. As per this study, such people perceive their circumstances as more unfair than the people with positive emotional personal traits do. Also in an analogous study performed by Coleman, Irving, and Cooper (1999), it was set forth that the people with negative emotional personal traits perceived the setting in which they were placed as more unfair whilst the people with positive emotional personalities perceived it as a fairer setting. In another study, Heuer et al. (1999) asserted that self-esteem also affected the organizational justice perception. The study put forth that people with high-level self-esteem also had high-level organizational justice perceptions.

All these studies demonstrate that, as well as the fair practices which were actually present in the organizations, the personal traits affected the organizational justice perceptions. Departing from this point, it can be inferred that, on the basis of personal traits such as optimism, hope, resilience, and self-efficacy, the phenomenon of positive psychological capital is also a variable affecting the organizational justice perception. Based on this inference, the third and fourth hypotheses of the research can be stated as follows:

H3- Individuals’ positive psychological capital perception affects their organizational justice perceptions in both countries.

H4- Sub-dimensions of the positive psychological capital affect the organizational justice perceptions in both countries.

Methodology

The research was conducted in two different tertiary-level vocational schools in Turkey and Kosovo. Two scales were used in the research. The Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) which was developed by Luthans et al. (2007) and adapted to Turkish by Çetin and Basım(2012) was utilized for measuring the positive psychological capital. The Fair Learning Environment Questionnaire (FLEQ) which was developed for educational institutions by Lizzio et al. (2007) was used for measuring the organizational justice perception. The validity and reliability tests for the questionnaire were performed by Özer and Demirtaş (2010), and the questionnaire was accordingly adapted to Turkish by them. In the questionnaire, two dimensions of organizational justice were addressed. The first dimension of the questionnaire pertains to the quality of the students’ relations with academicians and administrators. This dimension is comprised of the items describing generally the consistent and fair practices, the participatory relationship of the student and staff in procedures and administration, and an educational environment in which the student is valued. The second dimension is in general made up of items about problem-solving processes and the transparency and efficacy of the procedures. This dimension covers the issues related to the functioning of the system such as the student’s easy access to information and consultancy, the presence of effective and well-defined problem-solving procedures, and the support for complaint and negative feedback processes (Özer&Demirtaş, 2010). The questionnaire was used in this current study upon the receipt of permission from the authors. Research data were collected through the survey data collection technique which is a quantitative research method. A total of 187 surveys were obtained from the tertiary-level vocational school located in Turkey while 139 surveys were completed at the tertiary-level vocational school in Kosovo. The survey was applied to the students on a face-to-face basis. The students were informed about the importance of the survey, and it was underlined that the students should meticulously fill in the survey forms. Of all survey forms, 59 were left out of the evaluations as these forms were not eligible for the evaluation.

Research data were analyzed via the SPSS statistical software. In the analysis of research data, the t-test was used for the comparison of differences, and the regression analysis was utilized for identifying to what extent the positive psychological capital perceptions affected the organizational justice perceptions. Moreover, multiple regression analysis was performed for exploring to what extent the optimism, psychological resilience, hope and self-efficacy sub-dimensions of the positive psychological capital perception affected the organizational justice perception, and analysis results were reviewed separately for each country. The model indicating the relationship between the above variables was exhibited in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Research Model

                    Positive Psychological Capital

       
   
     
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Findings and Discussion

Participant Characteristics

The research sample is composed of 267 participants. Of all research participants, 137 participants were female, and 130 participants were male. As per the review of the countries which the participants came from, 139 participants were from Kosovo and 128 participants were from Turkey. Moreover, it is discerned that 51.3% of the participants were female and 48.7% of the participants were male. The review of the breakdown of the participants by country indicates that the percentages of participants from Kosovo (52.1%) and Turkey (47.9%) were quite close to each other.

Descriptive Statistics in Relation to the PCQ and FLEQ

The mean scores obtained by the participants, standard deviations, and reliability values calculated in relation to PCQ and FLEQ were analyzed and displayed in Table 1.

Table 1: Descriptive Statistics in Relation to PCQ and FLEQ

Measurement Tool

Mean

Standard Deviation

Skewness

Kurtosis

Cronbach’s Alpha

Number of Items

PCQ

3.392

.670

.220

-.893

.928

24

FLEQ

3.131

.700

.157

-.520

.894

16

The review of skewness and kurtosis values in Table 1 exhibit that these values ranged between +1 and -1. This signifies that the research data were normally distributed (Hair et al., 2013). As the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients calculated as the measure of internal consistency for PCQ and FLEQ were above 0.70, both scales have acceptable and relatively high-level internal consistency (Özdamar, 2004).

Analysis of the Statistically Significant Differences Comparison of the mean PCQ and FLEQ scores by country

Table 2 exhibited the results of comparisons made via independent samples t-test to explore whether there was any statistically significant difference in positive psychological capital and organizational justice perceptions as per the participant country.

Table 2:Independent Samples T-Test

 

Country

N

Mean

Standard Deviation

t

df

p

PCQ

Kosovo

139

3.3619

.65455

-12.274

265

.000

Turkey

128

3.4234

.68532

FLEQ

Kosovo

139

3.0534

.70359

-5853

265

.000

Turkey

128

3.2130

.68940

The findings in Table 2 indicate that there were statistically significant differences in the mean PCQ and FLEQ scores between the participants from Kosovo and Turkey (p<0.05). The findings demonstrate that the means of scores obtained from both scales by the participants in Kosovo and Turkey were different and the mean of scores obtained from the PCQ and FLEQ by the Turkish participants were higher than the one obtained by the Kosovar participants. In this sense, both of the following hypotheses were verified: “H1- There is a statistically significant difference in positive psychological capital perceptions between Turkey and Kosovo.” and “H2- There is a statistically significant difference in organizational justice perceptions between Turkey and Kosovo.”

Effect of the Positive Psychological Capital Perception on the Organizational Justice Perception

In this part, regression analysis was conducted for identifying to what extent the participants’ positive psychological capital perceptions affected their organizational justice perceptions. The findings obtained through the regression analysis are presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Regression Analysis

Variable

   R=.686         R2=.471        Adj. R2=.469      F=235.746        p<0.001

Standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

β

t

p

B

Std. Error

Constant

.697

.162

 

4.310

.000

Positive Psychological Capital

.718

.047

.686

15.354

.000

Dependent Variable: Organizational Justice Perception

Upon the evaluation of the results of the regression analysis presented in Table 3, it is discerned that there was a statistically significant positive linear relationship (correlation) between the positive psychological capital perception and organizational justice perception (R=.638, p<0.001). In Table 3, the dependent variable in the model is organizational justice perception, and the independent variable is the positive psychological capital perception. In this regard, the positive psychological capital perception as the independent variable accounts for 46.9% of the variance in the organizational justice perception (Adj. R2=.469).

Moreover, the results in Table 3 show that the explanatory power of the model is statistically significant (F=235.746, p<0.001). Upon the evaluation of the results in the regression model about the effect of the positive psychological capital perception on the organizational justice perception, it was ascertained that the positive psychological capital had a statistically significant positive effect on the organizational justice perception (β=.686, p<0.001). In this sense, the following hypothesis was verified: “H3: Individuals’ positive psychological capital perceptions affect their organizational justice perceptions in both countries.”

Analysis of the Effect of the Positive Psychological Capital Perception on the Organizational Justice Perception by Country

In this part, for research participants both in Turkey and Kosovo, the regression analyses were separately conducted for identifying to what extent the participants’ positive psychological capital perceptions affected their organizational justice perceptions. The findings obtained through the regression analyses are exhibited in Table 4 and Table 5.

Table 4: Regression Analysis for the Research Participants in Kosovo

Variable

      R=.875         R2=.765        Adj. R2=.764     F=446.564        p<0.001

Standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

β

t

p

B

Std. Error

Constant

-.661

.171

-

-3.864

.000

Positive Psychological Capital

1.186

.056

.875

21.132

.000

Dependent Variable: Organizational Justice Perception

The findings in Table 4 about the regression analysis performed for the research participants in Kosovo show that there was a statistically significant positive linear relationship (correlation) between the positive psychological capital perception and organizational justice perception (R=.875, p<0.001). Upon the review of the findings of the regression model, it was found that the positive psychological capital perception accounted for 76.4% of the variance in the organizational justice perception in the research participants in Kosovo (Adj. R2=.764).

As per the results of regression analysis, the explanatory power of the model used for the research participants in Kosovo is statistically significant (F=446.564, p<0.001). Upon the evaluation of the results in the regression model about the effect of the positive psychological capital perception on the organizational justice perception, it was identified that the positive psychological capital had a statistically significant positive effect on the organizational justice perception (β=.875, p<0.001).

The findings of the regression analysis conducted for the research participants in Turkey were shown in Table 5.

Table 5: Regression Analysis for the Research Participants in Turkey

Variable

      R=.400         R2=.160       Adj. R2=.154     F=24.045        p<0.001

Standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

β

t

p

B

Std. Error

Constant

1.678

.350

 

4.790

.000

Positive Psychological Capital

.446

.091

.400

4.904

.000

Dependent Variable: Organizational Justice Perception

The results of the regression analysis in Table 5 revealed that there was a statistically significant positive linear relationship (correlation) between the positive psychological capital perception and the organizational justice perception also in the case of the research participants in Turkey (R=.400, p<0.001). As per the examination of the findings of the regression model, the positive psychological capital perception accounted for 15.4% of the variance in the organizational justice perception in the research participantsin Turkey (Adj. R2=.154).

As per the results of regression analysis, the explanatory power of the model used for the research participants in Turkey is statistically significant (F=20.045, p<0.001). Upon the evaluation of the results about the effect of the positive psychological capital perception on the organizational justice perception, it was discerned that the positive psychological capital had a statistically significant positive effect on the organizational justice perception (β=.400, p<0.001).

Analysis of the Effects of the Sub-Dimensions of the Positive Psychological Capital Perception on the Organizational Justice Perception by Country

In this part, the effects of the sub-dimensions of the positive psychological capital perceptions on the organizational justice perception were explored separately for research participants both in Kosovo and Turkey. Table 6 and Table 7 displayed the results of multiple regression analyses conducted for identifying to what extent the optimism, psychological resilience, hope and self-efficacy sub-dimensions of the psychological capital perception affected the organizational justice perception.

Table 6: Multiple Regression Analysis for the Research Participants in Kosovo

Variable

              R=.884               R2=.782           Adj. R2=.776

F=120.237         p<0.001            Durbin-Watson= 1.610

Standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

β

t

p

B

Std. Error

Constant

-.343

.331

 

-1.039

.301

Optimism

.127

.115

.063

1.103

.272

Psychological Resilience

.259

.126

.180

2.053

.042

Hope

.581

.106

.573

5.492

.000

Self-Efficacy

.113

.095

.118

1.190

.236

Dependent Variable: Organizational Justice Perception

Upon the evaluation of the results of the multiple regression analysis, it was found that there was a statistically significant positive relationship between the organizational justice perception and the sub-dimensions of positive psychological capital perception in the case of the research participants in Kosovo (R=.884, p<0.001). According to Table 6 which exhibited the results of multiple regression analysis, the dependent variable was organizational justice perception in the model while the independent variables were optimism, psychological resilience, hope, and self-efficacy. In this context, the independent variables accounted for 78.2% of the variance in the organizational justice perception in the research participants in Kosovo (Adj. R2=.782).

As per the results of multiple regression analysis conducted on the research participants in Kosovo, the explanatory power of the model is statistically significant (F=120.237, p<0.001). Upon the evaluation of the results about the effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable as per the multiple regression model, it was identified that psychological resilience (β =.180, p<0.001) and hope (β =.573, p<0.001) had statistically significant positive effects on the organizational justice perception whereas optimism (t=.272, p>0.05) and self-efficacy (t=.236, p>0.05) had no statistically significant effect on the organizational justice perception.

The findings of the multiple regression analysis conducted on the research participants in Turkey are displayed in Table 7.

 

 

 

Table 7: Multiple Regression Analysis for the Research Participants in Turkey

Variable

              R=.532               R2=.283           Adj. R2=.259

F=12.118            p<0.001            Durbin-Watson= 2.158

Standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

β

t

p

B

Std. Error

Constant

1.795

.339

 

5.288

.000

Optimism

.082

.105

.076

.777

.439

Psychological Resilience

-.380

.114

-.393

-3.339

.001

Hope

.467

.113

.508

4.127

.000

Self-Efficacy

.226

.092

.270

2.460

.015

Dependent Variable: Organizational Justice Perception

Upon the examination of the results of the multiple regression analysis about the research participants in Turkey, it was ascertained that there was a statistically significant positive relationship between the organizational justice perception and the sub-dimensions of positive psychological capital perception (R=.532, p<0.001). According to Table 7, it was discerned that the independent variables in the model, optimism, psychological resilience, hope, and self-efficacy, accounted for 25.9% of the variance in the organizational justice perception in the case of the research participants in Turkey (Adj. R2=.259).

As per the results of multiple regression analysis conducted on the research participants in Turkey, the explanatory power of the model is statistically significant (F=12.118, p<0.001). Upon the evaluation of the results about the effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable in the multiple regression model, it was found that all sub-dimensions except optimism (t=,777; p> 0,05) had statistically significant effects on the organizational justice perception. According to the examination of the statistically significant effects, it was discerned that psychological resilience (β = -.393, p<0.001) had a negative effect on the organizational justice perception whilst hope (β =.508, p<0.001) and self-efficacy (β =.270, p<0.001) had positive effects on the organizational justice perception.In this context, the following hypothesis was partially verified: “H4: Sub-dimensions of the positive psychological capital affect the organizational justice perceptions in both countries.”

5. Conclusion

The research findings indicated that the first and second hypotheses of the study were verified as per the comparisons exhibited in Table 2. Likewise, the regression analysis which was conducted for identifying to what extent the positive psychological capital perception affected the organizational justice perception verified the third hypothesis of the study. This current research supports the results of the study by Lupsa et al. (2020). As per the model developed by Lupsa et al. (2020), there is a two-way relationship between positive psychological capital and organizational justice. Hence, the hypothesis in this current study which suggests that positive psychological capital affected the organizational justice perception is consistent with the assertions of the study by Lupsa et al. (2020).

In light of the comparisons between the two countries and the findings in Table 4, it is discerned that the positive psychological capital perception accounted for 46.9% of the variance in the organizational justice perception in the case of Kosovo. As per the examination of the regression model for Turkey, the positive psychological capital perception accounted for 15.4% of the variance in the organizational justice perception. These findings support our consideration that the positive psychological capital accounts for the variance in the organizational justice perceptions in both countries and there are differences in terms of these variables between the two countries. As a matter of fact, our findings also support our supposition which puts forth that there will be differences between two counties based on the study by Hofstede et al. (2011).

Another comparison to be made between the two countries as per the research findings shows that sub-dimensions of positive psychological capital, namely, optimism, psychological resilience, hope, and self-efficacy, accounted for 78.2% of the variance in the organizational justice perception in the case of Kosovo. In light of the results of the multiple regression analysis in Table 6, it was identified that psychological resilience and hope were the variables with statistically significant effects on the organizational justice perception. However, it was found that optimism and self-efficacy sub-dimensions had no statistically significant effect on the organizational justice perception. By accounting for 78.2% of the variance in the organizational justice perception, our model makes a significant contribution to the explanation of organizational justice perception in the case of Kosovo. In the case of Turkey, however, optimism, psychological resilience, hope, and self-efficacy sub-dimensions’ accounts for 25.9% of the variance in the organizational justice perception according to the findings in Table 7. In this conjunction, the fourth hypothesis of the research was partially verified. As per the comparison of the two countries, it is evaluated that the sub-dimensions of positive psychological capital account for the organizational justice perception better in the context of Kosovo; however, in the context of Turkey, new variables are needed for explaining the organizational justice perception.

In light of these findings, the effects of different variables on organizational justice perception should be examined. Particularly the analyses to be carried out with variables at the macro level of analysis can explain the topic better. For instance, the study by Acemoğlu and Robinson (2012) reveals that inclusive economic institutions were more effective in promoting individuals’ creatively destructive and innovative activities than exploitative economic institutions. Thus, the prospective studies can address the effect of the functioning of the formal institutions in a country (e.g. fairness of the judicial system) (North, 1990) on the individuals’ organizational justice perceptions. As a matter of fact, the study by Acemoğlu and Robinson (2020) underlined that the powerful institutions affected the individuals’ justice perceptions.

The effects of the model were tested on an undeveloped country like Kosovo and a developing country like Turkey. The statistically significant differences between the two countries can be associated with the difference in the development levels of the two countries. Likewise, the differences in the income levels of the Turkish and Kosovar citizens might have implications on the research results. Therefore, prospective studies can test the model by taking into consideration the aforementioned variables in different countries.

In conclusion, positive psychological capital affects organizational justice perception. As per the comparison of Kosovo and Turkey, positive psychological capital and organizational justice perceptions differ between the two countries. Likewise, there are differences between the two countries as per the examination of optimism, psychological resilience, hope, and self-efficacy sub-dimensions of the positive psychological capital. However, the relationship between positive psychological capital and organizational justice perception might not be sufficiently explained as the study was performed with data obtained solely from the students enrolled in educational institutions. Besides, different results can be obtained in relation to two variables in underdeveloped, developing, and developed country contexts. Thus, the model in this study needs more testing in prospective studies.

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Endnotes:

[1] As thelargemajority of thepeopleliving in thiscountrywas of AlbanianoriginandalsoKosovowas a countrythatdeclareditsindependence on February 17, 2008, Albania wasselected as thecountrymostcongenialtotheculturalfabric of Kosovopeople as perthecomparisonsbyHofstede (https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/albania,turkey/).