Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.396
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

The Effect of Product Photograph and Information on Digital Apparel Marketing

 

Ahmet Özbek

Marmara University / Faculty of Technology, İstanbul, Turkey

 

Cansu Tor-Kadıoğlu

Tarsus University / Faculty of Applied Sciences / Mersin, Turkey

Ahasanul Haque

International Islamic University Malaysia/Department of Business Administration /Kuala

Lumpur, Malaysia

 

 

 

Abstract

The aim of this study is to reveal whether consumers are affected by product information and product photographs while purchasing pants from digital channels. The study consists of two stages. In the first stage, an online survey that evaluated the effect of the purchase behavior of pants pants photographs and information, was performed on 651 young consumers in Turkey. According to SPSS analysis, important results were obtained for the difference in the demographic factors of the consumers and the criteria that affect the purchasing of the consumer are determined.  In addition, it was concluded that information about the size of the trousers, fabric content, coloring, waist size, slackness, suitability for the use of wide-calfed consumers are also the criteria related to apparel information that affect the purchasing decision of the consumer. In the second stage of the research, three websites were scanned. The photos and information of the pants in the e-market places that consumers prefer most when purchasing apparels were examined according to the criteria determined in the first stage of the research. As a result of the examination, it was concluded that the pants photos and pants information in the relevant e-marketplaces did not meet some criteria that young consumers attach importance to. As a result of this research, which supports quantitative analysis with visual evidence, valuable advice has been given to the digital marketing sector.

 

Keywords: Digital marketing, consumer behaviour, apparel, marketing, consumer choice.

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Consumer preferences, which have changed rapidly with globalization, have led to the differentiation of products in the apparel industry as in all other sectors. Apparel is the final stage of production, which is created by bringing all raw and auxiliary materials together and creating any model. In time, apparel and textile industry products have become among the basic consumer goods for people. Factors affecting the purchasing behavior of consumers and their consumption preferences are closely followed by brands. Businesses that want to gain competitive advantage in the apparel industry consider some criteria, such as; image (price, label, brand), aesthetics (attractiveness, appearance, fashion, design, color, model, fabrication) and technical design (quality, durability, body fit, comfort). Consumption habits have rapidly transitioned to digital platforms thanks to new media, smart mobile devices and tablet computers. The most important usage area of the internet in the business world is undoubtedly digital marketing. Digital shopping is easy and time-consuming, allowing consumers to purchase products in a short time, with a few clicks, without having to deal with physical or traditional shops (Khan&Rizvi, 2012).

From business life to social life, from corporate life to individual Internet, which has become an indispensable element of life; it has begun to provide consumers with the opportunity to shop at any time and anywhere. The number of people around the world using the internet has grown to 4.54 billion. When e-commerce activities in Turkey examined; it has been observed that 81% of consumers search for goods or services over the internet. When analyzed according to the most frequently performed e-commerce spending category in Turkey; It is known that the total expenditure in the hobby and toy category is 1.37 billion dollars, in the furniture category is 1.43 billion dollars and in the beauty and fashion category is 1.66 billion dollars (Kemp, 2020). The importance of the beauty, fashion and apparel industry can be understood from these data.

Internet usage rate was 79.0% among individuals aged 16-74 in 2020. This rate was 75.3% in the previous year. When internet usage rate is analyzed by the gender; it was observed that this rate was 84.7% for men and 73.3% for women. The rate of ordering or purchasing goods or services over the Internet by the gender was 40.2% for men and 32.7% for women. This rate was observed as 38.3% and 29.9%, respectively, in the same period of the previous year (Doğan, 2020). According to these data, it is thought that age and gender variables will make a significant difference on digital purchasing. Obtaining information about the purchasing channel is important for the research to provide sectoral recommendations. In the light of this information, it is of great importance to establish demographic hypotheses. Studies have identified numerous factors affecting online consumer behavior. Product information and photo are the focus of this research. In the age of smartphones, photography is now more important than ever. Almost 70% of the e-commerce website purchasers consider photo quality to be ‘very important’ when making their purchase decision (Fleming, 2020).

 

Digital Purchase Decision:Digital marketing is the marketing of products using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet, especially mobile phones and any other digital material. Digital shopping behavior refers to the purchase of products or services online. In a typical online shopping process, the consumer goes online for the products and services they need and searches for information about their needs. Year-over-year increases in the turnover of online shopping, producers and seller businesses, in line with the needs and demands of consumers, web designs, products / services their interest in research on e-marketing in many subjects from diversification and differentiation, delivery options and advantages to consumer motivation. Images and digital marketing go hand in hand. Usually businesses only have little time to interacting with a potential customer, so memorable and quality photo has importance. To take a potential customer’s attention an image should provide an idea about what you are selling. More importantly, growth in digital marketing has been due to the rapid advances in technologies and changing market Dynamics (Mort&Drennan, 2002). The consumer scans a wide range of products and identifies the subset of the most promising alternatives, then evaluates them further. Makes relative comparisons between products and makes a purchasing decision by choosing the one that best suits its own criteria to meet its needs (Li&Zhang, 2002).

The Effect of Product Photo on Purchasing Decision in Digital Environment: Photos are the best way to reply consumer questions about the details and features of a product. Every product must have excellent professional photos that displayed their products accurately and in full detail (Varghese&Zacharias, 2019). Product photos are one of the most important factors effect on consumers' intentions toward digital shopping (Liu, et al., 2018). Furthermore, photos can help to give confidence in e-commerce pages (Steinbrück, et al., 2002). Spite of the narrow use of image-processing techniques, visual stimuli have been actively searched in marketing research. In e-commerce, product photos are one important way for consumers to understand products (Wang, et al., 2020). (Kim&Lennon, 2010) searched the effects of human models, color swapping, and photo size on consumers’ emotional reactions. They showed that customers choose to see both higher-quality photos and more photos. Sun and Lee, revealed that pictures provide advantage to get efficiency and effectiveness (Sun&Lee, 2017). (Park, et. al., 2008) found that the rotation of products in a 3D presentation context affects consumers’ perceived information, mood, attitude, and purchase intention. (Cheung, et. al., 2017) revealed that using animation in online photos make great attribution on visual attentions. They used eyetracking technology to show that. (Naegelein, et. al., 2019) investigated how the combination of visual product presentation technologies through zoom and alternative photography affects sales in online shopping on both mobile and non-mobile devices. It is understood that the use of alternative photography and the combination of alternative photographs and zoom increase the probability of consumers to purchase, while using only zoom decreases the probability of purchasing.

The Effect of Product Information on Purchasing Decision in Digital Environment:Many considerations are taken into account by consumers to make purchasing decisions. In the process of identifying alternatives in her/his decision, a consumer will also identify the source of information on which decisions are based. Consumers really need quality information to support the decisions they make in choosing a product. According to (Markus, et. al., 2004); consumer's actual knowledge of a product is very crucial. In this case, it is important that the information they will obtain from the websites is accurate and of high quality. Information quality is defined as the perception by the customer of the quality of information regarding products or services provided by a website. To meet the information needs of consumers / online shoppers, product and service information needs to be up-to-date, assist online shoppers in making decisions, be consistent and easily understood. According to (Zulyanti, 2020), indicators of information quality according to the accuracy of the information; it is examined in four ways as the punctuality, completeness and presentation of the information.

Literature Review

 

The issue of digital marketing is a valuable subject that has become very important in the last 20 years. Studies have identified numerous factors affecting digital consumer behavior. Some of these are product / service, financial advantages, convenience and convenience, delivery and non-delivery risks (Chen, 2009; Sinha&Kim, 2012), price options, return possibilities, security, brand diversity, search engines, promotion and strong in adopting online purchasing in factors such as online shopping environments, respectively have significant effects  (Akbar&James, 2014). Studies in the literature show that there are many factors that affect the behavior of consumers when shopping digital. Considering the studies conducted, the main and most important factors that cause or prevent consumers from purchasing a product online are; privacy, security and trust, time saving, ease of use and shopping pleasure (Udo, 2001; Harrison-Walker, 2002). Figure 1 includes studies on digital marketing between 2000-2020.

 

 

Figure 1:Literature for Digital Marketing

 

There are many studies emphasizing the importance of product photo for consumers (Sun&Lee, 2017; Kim&Lennon, 2010; Wang, et. al., 2020; Liu, et. al., 2018; Park, et. al., 2008; Cheung, et. al., 2017; Naegelein, et. al., 2019; Varghese&Zacharias, 2019).  There are many studies emphasizing the importance of product information for consumers (Markus, et. al., 2004; Özbek, 2021; Zulyanti, 2020).

 

Material and Method

 

This research focuses on two purposes. The first aim is to examine the effect of the photograph and apparel information presented in the digital store on the consumer's purchasing decision in digital apparel marketing. The second purpose is to determine the application status of apparel information and apparel photograph elements that affect the consumer's digital purchasing decision in stores selling on e-marketplaces. The universe of the research is composed of young consumers due to the length of their stay in the digital environment and their habit of purchasing apparels in the digital environment. Because of the ease and height of the proportion of young mass transportation in the digital environment in Turkey, the survey sample was selected from university students (Özbek, 2021). Since it is one of the most purchased apparels in the digital environment, pants have been determined as a sample product. This section includes both stages of the research.

 

Stage 1:In the first stage of the research, the model in Figure 2 was developed and tested in order to determine the effects of pants photograph and pants knowledge on the pants purchasing decisions of young consumers.

 

Figure 2:Research Model

 

Within the scope of the research, a group of 30 people consisting of Marmara University Textile Engineering students were interviewed. The questionnaire form was applied because the characteristics to be measured in the study were based on attitude. Survey questions were determined as a result of these interviews. Variable and statements are created by authors based on related research such as (Varghese&Zacharias, 2019; Liu, et. al., 2018; Sun&Lee, 2017; Kim&Lennon, 2010; Wang, et. al., 2020; Naegelein, et. al., 2019; Özbek, 2021). The questionnaire which is prepared online and delivered to consumers, consists of three parts. In the first part, there are 7 questions defining the socio-economic characteristics of the participants. In the second part of the questionnaire, there is a five-point Likert scale consisting of 14 questions measuring the effects of pant photos in the digital environment on the pant purchasing decisions of young consumers. In the third and last part of the questionnaire; there is a 5-point Likert scale consisting of 6 questions measuring the effect of pant information in the digital environment on the pant purchase decision of young consumers. The relevant questionnaire was primarily applied to 53 university students online. The results in Table 1 have been reached. 

 

Table 1: Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items

N of Items

0,972

0,972

14

0,952

0,953

6

0,974

0,974

20

 

According to the results in Table 1, Cronbach's Alpha values in both scales show that the scales are suitable for their purpose and are applicable. Based on these results, the data set was obtained between 25.12.2020 and 07.01.2021. The participants expressed their opinions according to the five-point Likert scales. 651 young consumers participated in the research. There is one control question in the questionnaire (Do you purchase apparel online?). According to the data obtained from the participants, 550 participants (84.49%) purchased at least one garment from digital media, while 101 (15.51%) stated that they did not purchase any apparels. The questionnaire of 101 (15.51%) participants was excluded from the scope of the research, as they had no experience of selling apparels in the digital environment. The research continued on the data of 550 (84.49%) groups who have experience in purchasing apparels in the digital environment. The sample was composed of 331 females (60,2%) and 219 males (39,8%). Most of the participants falling between 18 and 25 years of age. The distribution of the participants by age groups is; 18-year-old 58 (10.55%) consumers, 19-year-old 100 (18.18%), 20-year-old 134 consumers (24.36%), 21-year-old 83 (15.09%), 22-year-old 48 consumers (% 8.73) and 127 consumers (23.09%) aged 23 and over. In this study, the age groups were divided into two groups as Generation Y and Generation Z.

 

When the answers given to the question measuring the education level of the participants are examined; it was seen that from 50.7% of them (n:279) graduated from a bachelor's degree, 39,6% of them (n:223) graduated from associate degree and 8,9% of them (n:48) graduated from master and doctorate degree. Income is an important parameter for digital shopping. Instead of asking about income directly in this research, ‘What is the average monthly income you can spend’’ question is used. According to data, 51.3% of participate have 500 TL and less income for shopping, 48,7% of participate have 501 TL and more income for shopping.

 

To give detailed information, the distribution of the participants according to the average monthly income they can spend; 160 (29.09%) person 0-250 TL, 119 consumers (21.64%) 251-500 TL, 91 consumers (16.55%), 501-750 TL, 55 consumer (10.00%) 751-1000 TL, 20 consumers (3.64%) 1001-1250 TL, 25 consumers (4.55%), 1251-1500 TL and 80 consumers (14.55%) 1501 and above. In addition, the participants were asked the question "please choose your size". It was observed that 41.3% of the participants chose the Medium size. The distribution of the participants according to their bodies; 2 consumers (0.36%) size XXS (Very very small), 25 consumers (4.55%) size XS (Very small), 150 consumers (27.27%) size S (Small), 227 consumers (41, 27%) size M (medium), 91 consumers (16.55%) size L (wide), 47 consumers (8.55%) size XL (very wide), 4 consumers (0.73%) size XXL (a lot very large) and 4 consumers (0.73%) size XXXL (very very large).  The most important frequency question is about purchasing channel. The channels preferred by the participants in purchasing apparels in the digital environment are given in Table 2.

 

Table 2: Frequency table according to purchasing channel

 

Frequency

Percent (%)

I prefer the website of the company that produces the pants

137

24,9

I prefer e-marketplaces (such as n11, trendyol)

384

69,8

I prefer social media (facebook, instagram etc.)

27

4,9

I prefer other channels.

2

0,4

 

550

100,0

 

According to descriptive analysis; when they purchase online, 69.8% of consumers prefer e-marketplaces, 24.9% of consumers prefer the website of the company that produces the pants. When consumers purchasing on e-market channel, they face with product photo and information. There are many studies emphasizing the importance of product information for consumers (Markus, et. al., 2004), (Özbek, 2021). In the light of this information and our research model, the following hypotheses have been established;

H1: The effect of product information on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to consumer’s gender.

H2: The effect of product information on the purchase of pants in the digital environment varies according to consumer’s age.

H3: The effect of product information on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to the preference of the purchasing channel.

There are many studies emphasizing the importance of product photo for consumers (Varghese&Zacharias, 2019; Liu, et. al., 2018; Sun&Lee, 2017; Kim&Lennon, 2010; Wang, et. al., 2020; Naegelein, et. al., 2019). In the light of this information, the following hypotheses have been established.

H4: The effect of the product photo on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to consumer’s gender

H5: The effect of the product photo on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to consumer’s age.

H6: The effect of product photo on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to the preference of the purchasing channel.

 

The expressions used in the study, the average values and standard deviation values of the expressions were given in Table 3. In addition, the reliability scores of the scales used are also shown in the table.

 

 

Table 3: Description of the table

Code

Statements

Mean

St.d

Cr. Alpha

PH1

I prefer to have a photo of the front of the pants.

3,30

1,567

0,970

PH2

I prefer to have a photo of the back of the pants.

3,37

1,540

PH3

I prefer to have photos of the side faces of the pants.

3,27

1,475

PH4

I prefer to have a detailed photo of the zipper part of the pants.

3,05

1,448

PH5

I prefer to have a detailed photo of the buttons part of the pants.

3,08

1,426

PH6

I prefer to have a detailed photo of the rivet part of the pants, if any.

2,95

1,338

PH7

I prefer to have a detailed photo of the side seams of the pants.

3,11

1,439

PH8

I prefer to have detailed photos of the belt parts of the pants.

3,09

1,423

PH9

I prefer to have a photo of the pants showing the inside of the pants.

2,60

1,275

PH10

I prefer to have a photo of the inside of the pants.

2,52

1,228

PH11

I prefer the number of photos of the pants to be more.

3,25

1,543

PH12

I prefer the photos of the pants taken on a live mannequin

3,49

1,590

PH13

I prefer video shot of pans on a live mannequin

3,29

1,525

PH14

I prefer to be able to navigate on the photo taken of the pants with a magnifying glass.

3,53

1,587

INF1

I prefer to have information about the content of the fabric of the pants (such as 100% cotton, 90% cotton + 10% elastane).

3,52

1,594

0,965

INF2

I prefer to have information about the color of the pants (such as color in the first two washes).

3,50

1,629

INF3

I prefer to have information about the loose condition of the pants (as if it can expand by half a size after the first few washes).

3,48

1,604

INF4

I prefer to have information about whether the pants are suitable for wide calf consumers.

3,26

1,492

INF5

I prefer to have information about how many centimeters the waist size of the pants are

3,48

1,573

INF6

I prefer to have information about the height of the pants in centimeters.

3,60

1,615

 

      In Table 4, the statistical values obtained in the testing of the hypotheses established based on the research model are included. One-way ANOVA test and Independent sample T-test were used to test these hypotheses. For Hypothesis 6, the difference between groups was determined and LSD test was applied to understand this difference. While 4 of the 6 hypotheses established were accepted, it was observed that 2 hypotheses were rejected. Data, regarding the mean and p values of the tests are presented.

Table 4: Reliability Statistics

 

 

n

mean

p

 

H1: The effect of product information on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to consumers gender

Gender

Female

331

3,61

0,007

Supported

Male

219

2,32

H2: The effect of product information on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to consumers age.

Generation

Generation Z  (1)

331

3,35

0,028

Supported

Generation Y (2)

219

3,62

H3: The effect of product information on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to the preference of the purchasing channel

Purchasing channel

Firm website

137

3,45

0,181

Not Supported

E-market

384

3,53

Social media

27

2,95

Others

2

2,50

H4: The effect of the product photo on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to consumer’s gender

Gender

Female

331

3,26

0,003

Supported

Male

219

2,94

H5: The effect of the product photo on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to consumer’s age

Generation

Generation Z  (1)

294

3,04

0,051

Not Supported

Generation Y (2)

256

3,25

H6: The effect of product photo on the purchase of pants in the digital media varies according to the preference of the purchasing channel.

Purchasing channel

consumers

137

3,18

0,023

Supported

consumers

384

3,17

consumers

27

2,57

Others

2

1,50

LSD Inter-group difference test for H6

Purchasing channel

Ortalamalar Farkı

p

 

Firm website

Social media

0,60893*

0,019

 

E-market

Social media

0,59873*

0,015

 

 

In order to examine the effect of product information on pants purchases in digital media according to the gender and generations of the consumer, independent t test was applied to the data. In the analysis, it was understood that the purchase intention of women increased more than men when they get information about pants (p:0,007<0,05).  In addition, when we compare the generation Y consumers with the generation Z consumers; generation Y consumers were found to be more willing to purchase pants with product information. (p:0,028<0,05). When the difference of the effect of product information on pants purchase according to the choice of the purchasing channel is examined. According to the applied Anova test, no statistically significant difference was detected. (p:0,181>0,05). According to the independent t test, no statistically significant difference was found between the Y and Z generation (p: 0,051>0,005).

In order to examine the effect of product photo on pants purchases in digital media according to the gender and generations of the consumer, independent t test was applied to the data again. In the analysis, it was understood that the purchase intention of women increased more than men when they see detailed photo of pants (p:0,003<0,05). According to one way ANOVA test, there is significant difference between purchasing channels for consumers (p:0,023<0,05). LSD, one of the difference tests, was applied to reveal the difference between groups. It is understood that consumers prefer the product's own site and e-market sites more than social media, if photographic information is given while purchasing pants in digital media.

At this point, it is important to have information about the information the consumer wants to get from the online site and the product photos s/he wants to see. First of all, it should be known which websites the consumer visits the most. Information on the top 20 most visited websites in Turkey is presented in the Table 5.

Stage 2: At this stage, the factors that seem to have an effect on the consumers' decision to purchase pants in the digital environment, the status of being in e-stores was examined. For this purpose the most visited websites in Turkey are determined as shown in Table 5.

 

Table 5: The top 20 most visited websites in Turkey in 2020

No

Name of website Pages/Visit

Time/Visit

Pages/Visit

No

Name of website Pages/Visit

Time/Visit

Pages/Visit

1

Google  

12M

14,6

11

Ekşisözlük

7M

5,7

2

Youtube               

11M

6,7

12

Hepsiburada

8M

7,4

3

Google.com.tr

4M

7,9

13

Akşam

2M

1,9

4

Facebook             

17M

7,8

14

Trendyol             

10M

9,3

5

Sahibinden

15M

19,1

15

Yeniakit

6M

3,6

6

EnSonHaber

7M

4,4

16

Netflix   

3M

2,7

7

Live

4M

5,0

17

Türkiye.gov

4M

4,6

8

N11

10M

7,2

18

Sözcü

6M

5,4

9

Hurriyet

5M

7,7

19

Milliyet 

6M

12,1

10

Memurlar

4M

3,0

20

Instagram

7M

6,8

Source: (Kemp, 2020)

It is seen that most visited web sites in Turkey, search engines, video channels, social media channels and companies selling apparel products. As can be seen from Table 5, there are three companies selling apparel products in this list, which includes the top 20 companies. These are; n11.com, hepsiburada.com and trendyol.com. These three web sites are discussed in detail in this research. The product information and product photo provided on the website has been scanned. Within the scope of the investigation, Tables 6 and 7 were created by taking the average of the data obtained from the information and the photos of the pants presented on the web page of each of the stores that sold a total of 300 pants in three e-marketplaces.

Table 6: Availability of Pant Information on E-marketplaces Web Site

Criteria

Trendyol

hepsiburada

n11

Mean %

Information about how many centimeters are the waist size of the pants.

100

100

100

100,00

Information on the content of the fabric of the pants (such as 100% cotton, 90% cotton + 10% elastane).

63

65

71

66,33

Information about how many centimeters are the height of the pants.

24

11

21

18,67

Information about the color of the pants (such as color in the first two washes).

1

2

2

1,67

Information about the slackness of the pants (as if it may expand by half a size after the first few washing).

0

1

0

0,33

Information on whether the pants are suitable for consumers with wide calves.

0

0

0

0,00

 

According to Table 6, when the stores that sell pants in e-marketplaces are examined; it has been determined that all of them have information about waist size, average 66.33% fabric content, average 18.67% height, average 1.67% coloration, average 0.33% broadening. However, no information was found in any of the stores on the suitability for use by large calf consumers.

Tablo 7:Availability of Pant Photo Features in E-marketplaces

Criteria

Trendyol

hepsiburada

n11

Mean %

Being able to navigate the photo of the pants with a magnifying glass

100

100

100

100,00

Photo of the front of the pants

100

97

99

98,67

Photos of the pants are on the live mannequin

92

94

97

94,33

Detailed photo of the pants belt

92

95

91

92,67

Photo of the back of the pants

82

86

81

83,00

Detailed photo of the side seams of the pants

73

84

78

78,33

Photo of the side faces of the pants

69

74

70

71,00

A lot of number of photos of the pants

3,97

3,94

4,43

4,11

Detailed photo of the zipper part of the pants, if any

0

2

2

1,33

Detailed photo of the buttons part of the pants, if any

1

0

1

0,67

Detailed photo of the rivet part of the pants, if any

0

0

0

0,00

Photo showing the inside of the pants inside out

0

0

0

0,00

Photo showing inside pockets of pants

0

0

0

0,00

Having a video of the pants

0

0

0

0,00

 

According to Table 7, when the stores selling pants in e-marketplaces are examined; 98.67% front face photograph, 94.33% live mannequin photograph, 92.67% detailed photograph of the belt part, 83% rear face photograph, 78.33% detailed photographs of the side seams and 71% of the side faces were found. However, the pants in the e-marketplaces examined according to Table 7; it has been determined that there are very few photos of detachment of the zipper, button and rivet that allow the opening of the pants from the front, back or sides. In addition, the photographs showing the inside of the pants by reversing them and showing the inside of their pockets were not found. Also not detected in the video of the pants.  

Results and Discussion

As a result of the research, it has been determined that approximately 85% of young consumers purchase apparels from digital media. This situation is similar to the data obtained by (Doğan, 2020). On the other hand, it was concluded that approximately 70% of young consumers participating in the research prefer e-marketplaces when purchasing apparels from digital media. This is important in terms of suggesting that apparel businesses use their e-marketplaces for marketing purposes.

As a result of the research, a comparison was made between the pant purchasing decisions of young consumers and the applications seen in the digital environment.

  • 81% of them answered “Agree and Fully Agree” on the condition that the information about the waist size of the pants affects the purchasing decision. It has been determined that all digital stores offer this measure to consumers.
  • 67,09% of them responded “Agree and Fully Agree” to the situation that pant fabric content information affects the purchasing decision. It was determined that 66.33% of digital stores offered this information to the consumer. The properties of the fabric from which the garment is produced directly affect the wearing comfort. For example, cotton fabrics; due to its moisture absorbency, durability, properties, especially preferred in underwear, home textiles, socks, pajamas, etc. areas (Kompedan, 2018). While presenting the pants to the market in the digital environment, the contents of the fabrics that make up the pants are given as 85% Polyester 15% Elastane.
  • 36% of them answered “Agree and Fully Agree” to the situation that the information about the size of the pants affects the purchasing decision. It has been determined that only 18.67% of digital stores provide this information to the consumer.
  • 18% of them answered “Agree and Fully Agree” to the situation that the color rendering information of pants affects the purchase decision. It was determined that only 1.67% of digital stores offered this information to the consumer. Coloring and discoloration are the most common complaints of consumers about pants (Özbek, 2021). Whether the pants change color, whether they give color, and if so, how many washings it gives can be determined very easily in laboratories with today's apparel tests. This information should be shared with the consumer while putting the pants on the market in a digital environment.
  • 90% of them answered “Agree and Fully Agree” on the condition that the information about the slackness of pants affects the purchasing decision. It was determined that only 0.33% of digital stores provided this information to the consumer. Getting loose is another issue that consumers complain about the most (Özbek, 2021). Sharing the loose apparel information with the consumer affects the purchasing behavior of the consumer.
  • 18% answered “Agree and Fully Agree” on the condition that the information on the suitability of pants for the use of wide-calf consumers affects the purchasing decision. It was understood that the digital stores under consideration did not present this information to the consumer. According to some experts, not all pants are suitable for every consumer size. For example, when denim pants sticking to the body are used by consumers with wide calves, abrasions occur especially on the crotch parts (Özbek, 2021). For this reason, sharing relevant information with consumers is an important factor affecting the purchasing behavior of the consumer.

Waist and Height; The reason why consumers often return digitally purchased garments and order more than one size from the same garments are because of the waist and height measurements of the garments do not match the measurements of the consumers. It is thought that sharing the pants sizes with the consumers as shown in Figure 3 will solve this problem.

Figure 3:Waist and height (falajean, 2021)

In the quantitative part of the research, the survey data obtained on the importance of product photography in purchasing pants of consumers are supported by this section;

  • 9% of the consumers answered Agree and Fully Agree to the situation that being able to navigate with a magnifying glass on the photo of the pants on the purchasing decision, while it was found that all digital stores have this feature.
  • While 67,09% of them answered Agree and Fully Agree on the condition that the front side of the pants affect the purchasing decision, it was determined that 98,67% of digital stores have this feature.
  • 73% of them answered Agree and Completely Agree on the condition that the pant photos are on the live mannequin, and 94.33% of the digital stores have this feature.
  • 72% of them answered Agree and Fully Agree to the situation that the detailed photograph of the belt part of the pants affects the purchasing decision, while it was determined that 92.67% of the digital stores have this feature.
  • 36% of them responded “Agree and Fully Agree” to the situation that having a photo of the back of the pants affects the purchasing decision, while it has been determined that 83% of digital stores have this feature.
  • 18% of them answered Agree and Fully Agree to the situation that the detailed photo of the side seams of the pants affects the purchasing decision, while it was determined that the average 78.33% of digital stores have this feature.
  • 81% of them responded “ Agree and Fully Agree” to the situation that the photo of the side faces of the pants affects the purchasing decision, while 71% of the digital stores have this feature.
  • 09% of them answered Agree and Fully Agree to the situation that the number of photos of pants affects the purchasing decision, while it was determined that there are an average of 4.11 photos for each product in digital stores.
  • % 51,09 of them answered Agree and Fully Agree to the fact that the detailed photo of the zipper part of the pants, if any, affects the purchasing decision, it has been determined that 1.33% of the digital stores have this feature.
  • 09% of the pants gave Agree and Fully Agree to the situation that the detailed photo of the buttons, if any, of the pants affect the purchasing decision, while 0.67% of the digital stores have this feature.
  • 18% of them answered Agree and Fully Agree if the detailed photo of the rivet part of the pants, if any, affects the purchasing decision, while this feature was not detected in any of the digital stores.
  • 09% of them responded “Agree and Fully Agree” to the fact that the photo of the pants reversing and showing the inside of it affects the purchasing decision, whereas this feature was not detected in any of the digital stores.
  • 27% of them responded “Agree and Fully Agree” to the fact that the photo showing inside of the pants' pockets affects the purchasing decision, whereas this feature was not detected in any of the digital stores.
  • 73% of them answered Agree and Fully Agree to the fact that the video of the pants was taken on a live mannequin, and this feature was not detected in any of the digital stores.

Using the data obtained within the scope of the research, it is shown in Figure 4 which aspects and which details should be emphasized when presenting the photos of pants from the digital environment to the consumer. Figure 4.a shows the front, back and side faces of the pants on the live mannequin. In Figure 4.b and c, consumers are given the opportunity to examine the apparel on a live mannequin with a magnifying glass.

 

                                              Figure: 4.a                                Figure: 4.b                                    Figure: 4.c

Figure 4:Basic Images of the Pants (trendyol.com, 2021)

In Figure 5, sample photos are given to the detail images of the pants. These opening-closing operations of the pants that are opened from the front, side and / or back parts are generally; provided with zippers, buttons, hooks and rivets. Figure 5.a shows side opening-closing with only zipper, opening-closing operation with zipper and rivet in the front center in Figure 5.b, and opening and closing with zipper and hook from the front center in Figure 5.c. The detail of the side seams is given in Figure 5.d and the detailed view of both the pocket and belt parts are given in Figure 5.e.

 

     

Figure: 5.a

(hepsiburada.com, 2021)

Figure: 5.b

(hepsiburada.com, 2021)

Figure: 5.c

(urun.n11.com, 2021)

 

 

 

 

Figure: 5.d (trendyol.com, 2021)

 

 Figure: 5.e  (trendyol.com, 2021)

Figure 5:Detailed Images of the Pants

 

As a result, each of the pants; It is suggested having 6-7 photographs consisting of front, back side right and left, opening area, if any, detailed side seams, belts and detailed photos of pockets. It is thought that these photos will positively affect the purchasing decision of the consumer.

 

Conclusion

This research consists of two stages and uses two different research methods together. So, provides several contributions. First, this study shows the importance of product information and photo detail to apparel digital marketing. Thanks to the quantitative analysis, important results were obtained for the difference in the demographic factors of the consumers. Consumer’s characteristic includes their demographic factors such as gender, age, income will guide them to have the desire to shop digital (Monsuwé, et. al. 2004). For example, in this study it was understood that the purchase intention of women increased more than men when they get information about pants. In addition, when we compare the generation Y consumers with the generation Z consumers; generation Y consumers were found to be more willing to purchase pants with product information. But, statistically significant difference wasn’t found between the Y and Z generation according to their choice of the purchasing channel. This result is similar with Sullivan’s study (Sullivan&Hyun, 2016). They revealed that in spite of Gen Y consumers important role as a decision maker in the market, it is progressively more competitions between Gen Y and Z. Retailers are trying to understand the differences between these consumers retail apparel superiority behaviour. According to analysis, purchase intention of women increased more than men when they see detailed photo of pants. And also, it is understood that consumers prefer the product's own site and e-market sites more than social media, if photographic information is given while purchasing pants in digital media.

Second contribution is using the information obtained within the scope of the research, the factors that should be considered while presenting the pant photographs to the consumers were determined. These factors are determined as follows; fabric content, color, relaxation, suitable body structure, waist and height size. According to SPSS analysis, the criteria that affect the purchasing of the consumer are determined as; the front face photo of the product, the photos that can be enlarged, the photo of the live mannequin, the photo of the back face, the photo of the side face, the high number of photos, the video of the live mannequin, the detailed photo of the zipper, the button and the rivet, if any, the detailed photo of the side seams, the detailed photo of the belt parts, reversed photo and photo showing inside pockets. It is an important contribution to provide visual examples on the digital application of pants images affecting the consumer's purchase decision. Besides, it was concluded that there should be 6-7 photographs consisting of the front, back side, right and left, the opening zone if any, detailed side seam, detailed photos of the belt and pockets each of pants. This result is supported by Michalik’s study results (Michalik&Kłeczek, 2019).They revealed that photos provide an increase the sales by consumers’ clickthroughs. 

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