Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.396
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Employability of Management Graduates: Through The Lens Of Knowledge, Skills, Abilities

Swati Banasal,

Assistant Professor,

Sharda University, India

 

Monica Agarwal,

Assistant Professor,

Sharda University, India

 

Sharad Chaturvedi,

Professor,

Sharda University, India


 

 

Abstract

 Employability is a crucial variable for the nation's economic growth in general and individual growth. In today's changing business scenario, management students' employability is considered a big challenge by all management educational institutions. This research paper tries to throw glimpses on the importance of KSA in employment from management graduates, faculty members and employers. These are assumed to be the key stakeholders in this process. The study was conducted in the National capital region (NCR) of Delhi. By using ANOVA on the data of 680 respondents, 25 factors of KSA were analyzed. It was concluded that a significant gap exists between various parameters as perceived by faculty members, management graduates and employers. Knowledge of working environment, knowledge of the market, knowledge of industry, problem solving skills were found to have significant variation. A change is required in looking at the issue. It is required that the focus changes towards KSA, and an inclusive approach of all the stakeholders is needed for improving the employability bar.

Keywords—Employability, Knowledge, Skills, Abilities (KSA), Faculty Members, Employer, Management Graduates

 

introduction

 

The economic development of the country is a stimulus for management students to obtain job opportunities. Organizations recruit management graduates to draw on business prospects emerging from increased economic development and demand expansion [1]. However, while jobs are available, almost seventy six million youngsters worldwide cannot get the work, and many businesses firm have vacant positions that they are unable to fill [2]. What is the reason behind this? The changing business environment demands employees with high competencies like technology, behavioural, leadership to survive in the business world [3] equipped with relevant capabilities, knowledge, skills, abilities (KSA) and personal qualities [4]. KSA plays a crucial role in the employability of management graduates. The knowledge that is not adequately managed has no value and becomes outdated [5]. Newly recruited management graduates are not judged on their academic success, academic competence or technological skills but are judged on other skills that have taken priority to their cognitive or technical skills. These skills have changed, but the idea behind these skills remains [6].

Many young people are discovering themselves that even with their academic qualifications and education, which is often acquired at considerable expense, they lack the specific knowledge, skills and capabilities of the ever-changing job market [7].

Management educational institutions/faculty members stated that “interpersonal skills” are most needed for job performance, while “employers” perceive “literacy and numeracy” as most needed for job performance [8].

Thus, the employability of management graduates to a large extent depends on their KSA, however what is the KSA which required for these management graduates? Are the three main stakeholders -the students, the faculty members and the employers in the same line of understanding this KSA.There seems to be a mismatch of perspective of KSA, which is present globally.

This issue of the gap between education and needs or demands of the employer may exist in all education domains. However, this research paper focuses on the employability of management graduates in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi.

The focus is on understanding the gap in knowledge, skills and abilities from the employer, faculty members and management graduates perspective.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Today, India's rapid growth and competitive investment climate has undoubtedly raised the market for high levels of administrative, technological and soft skills [9]. It is high time that we begin, revise, and restructure India's education system to eliminate the excess disparity between India's "talent gap" and some of the more developed countries [10].A business management course curriculum often fails to provide managerial skills in which an MBA graduate is expected to apply in real-life problem-solving cases. The curriculum is still focused on academics rather than experiential learning [11].  In some extreme cases, it becomes a legitimacy crisis or relevance problem for the management institutions. There exists a gap between the expected level of industry and the skills of students [12].

The Indian workforce is likely to be increased from the current 473 million to 600 million by 2022. This change will be due to expanding the Indian domestic market, globalization and inclusion of technologies like Artificial Intelligence and IoT. Therefore, there is a requirement for the proper mix of KSA as an essential factor to enhance management graduates' employability.

To move ahead, we need to understand the concept of employability and KSA.

Employability

In the current job market scenario, merely being a degree holder is not enough for a successful and satisfying career. These days the recruiters look for candidates equipped to manage the specific task with the right skill. Moreover, to have a competitive advantage over other candidates, the graduates should obtain and build up the skills and ability to be attractive to the employer [4].In this speedily changing knowledge and Information Technology environment, employability comprises much more than possession of employees' generic skills and attributes [13].

Employability is usually an ambition to secure a job with the knowledge acquired during the management training program with a patterned curriculum [14]. It is a combination of achievements that include skills, understanding of the subject and personal characteristics or attributes that help the graduates find the job and be successful and effective in their chosen job. This employment should benefit the individuals, society and the economy at large [15]. However, the recent data on the employability of management graduates are not very promising.

According to 'India Skills Report,' [16], a joint initiative of the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Association of Indian Universities (AIU), People Strong, and Wheebox, there is a decrease in the student's employability who earned an MBA degree by more than 3% since in 2019. It had decreased from 39.4% in 2018 to 36.44% in 2019.

 

 

MBA COURSE(YEAR WISE)

EMPLOYABILITY (%)

2014

41.02%

2015

43.99%

2016

44.56%

2017

42.28%

2018

39.40%

2019

36.44%

 

 

According to the Digital Talent Gap report [17] (referring to the B-school graduates' skill gap), India has an average proportion of 76% digital talent compared to the global average of 56%. However, 64% of the companies highlighted the widening of India's digital talent gap, compared to 54% globally. In India, only 7% of the management graduates are employable, and the rest struggle for the job. If these unemployed graduates find a placement, they get less than 10,000 per month. Based on the report's finding, it is concluded that the quality of education is low and does not match what the industry wants [18]. It seems like the level of education and talent has fallen with the unexpected rise in the colleges contributing to management education.

The mushroom growth of MBA institutes with the low quality of student intake is one of the reasons. The different curriculum taught with their different quality in the different institution is another reason [19]. Some institutions try to cope with the change in demand of the market, while others do not. A strict approach is needed; otherwise, this degree will lose this future.

Knowledge, Skills, Abilities (KSA)

Knowledge' can be defined as what we understand. It involves the process whereby one mentally try to grasp, understand and learn. This learning goes into our mind and helps in our interaction with the outside world [20]. Knowledge is the information that one acquires through experience, learning and understanding [21].It contains readily available information and helps us make the right decisions and, later on, the right actions based on those judgements [22]. Anand & Walsh [23] explained that expert knowledge is the right blend of skills, details and experience. The main aim is to distribute the knowledge in such a way so that the employees are encouraged to share the knowledge and build the infrastructure of knowledge management [24]. Therefore, the organization must have the organization's processes and implementation to appropriately manage the knowledge [25].In a corporate context, the largest number of eligible people acquire information through intelligence acquisition. In context, knowledge is information. The context is modified. Rationalists see it as a cohesive whole, while pragmatics simply see it as the usefulness of a particular case. The meaning description may be helpful but usually does not have coherence and usefulness for the whole document [26].

Skill is the ability to do a task without a pre-existing system of rules or instruction manuals. When there is a challenging job or work, workers need to work together to complete the work. Each employee cannot bring all the skills and experience together [27]. Working together has contributed to developing groups and teams whereby individuals possess the right talents, qualities, and experience, resulting in positive outcomes [28]. Wimalasiri [29] state that specific roles in the workplace require a combination of different transferable skills. Some of these skills are “working in teams, solving problems, managing oneself, understanding the business, literacy and numeracy skills, interpersonal relations, taking the initiative, receptive to guidance, and leadership skills”. 

While some employers found graduates to be highly competent in “personal qualities and skills”[30], others found a high mismatch in attributes "including critical analysis, organizing, problem-solving, ability to articulate, decision-making, and influencing the process” [31]. Employers require graduates to possess “communication, teamwork and self-management skills” [32]. The essential attributes rated by management graduates are “leadership and work ethics”, but higher education institution and employer rated lower this attribute[33].Students' skills help them get better-paid career and job roles that motivate them to develop and grow [34]. Skills play a crucial role in being employable, along with experience. The graduates need to be aware of these skills to enable them to be employed after receiving their education [35].

According to Stephen P. Robbins [36], “Ability is an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job”. Ability is the quality or state of being able, power to perform whether physical, mental, moral intellectual, skill in doing, the sufficiency of strength, and available resources. It underpins and contributes to skills. It can be essentially perceptual, essentially motor or a combination of both. Ability is the quality of being able to something, especially the physical, mental, financial or legal power to accomplish something [37].

RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY

Understanding the knowledge, skill and abilities, and the gap between academic output and industrial expectations is the primary focus of the analysis, and research has been conducted using the designed research framework. The conceptual structure for this analysis has been formulated from the literature review. Since the study aimed to identify the perception similarity/difference between the employers, faculty members and management graduates about the role of knowledge, skills and abilities in employability, samples of respondents are selected from all three groups.

The study was conducted in the NCR of Delhi. Several colleges have opened independent management departments and now offer BBA and MBA degrees [38].

The questionnaire was designed to assess the analysis of education and employability of management graduates in terms of three variables, i.e. knowledge, skills and abilities. The instrument consisted of twenty-five items that were divided into two sections.                                                                 

Each item was evaluated using a five-point Likert scale where response 1 represented "strongly disagree" and five representing "strongly agree", with responses varying from strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree to strongly agree. Cronbach's Alpha was 0.89, which indicated a relatively good test of reliability for the instrument.

All respondents of the questionnaire were given complete information regarding its purpose and were allowed to fill it in by their own will. Over 900 questionnaires were sent, and 680 responded. Thus the sample size was 680.

Hypothesis: "There is a significant difference between the KSA perceived by the faculty member, management graduates and employer”.

The following were the 25 proposition based on hypothesis 1-

Proposition 1: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on knowledge of the working environment

Proposition 2: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on knowledge of the market

Proposition 3: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on knowledge of the industry

Proposition 4: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on knowledge of research methods

Proposition 5: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on written communication skills

Proposition 6: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on creativity and innovation skills

Proposition 7: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on analytical skills

Proposition 8: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on professional and ethical skills

Proposition 9: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on oral communication skills

Proposition 10: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on planning and organizing skills

Proposition 11: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on teamwork skills

Proposition 12: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on continuous learning skills

Proposition 13: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on information management and documentation skills

Proposition 14: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on leadership skills

Proposition 15: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on problem-solving skills

Proposition 16: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on interpersonal skills

Proposition 17: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on networking skills

Proposition 18: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on corporate etiquette skills

Proposition 19: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on conflict resolution skills

Proposition 20: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on multi-lingual skills

Proposition 21: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on ability to be in discipline

Proposition 22: Faculty members, employerand management graduates have the same opinion on numerical ability

Proposition 23: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on ability to adapt

Proposition 24: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on ability to control distraction

Proposition 25: Faculty members, employer and management graduates have the same opinion on ability of global outlook

 

ANOVA (One-way analysis of variance)was carried out to test the hypothesis. “ANOVA” is a statistical technique used to analyze the observed variance, broken down into components. These components then tell about the sources of variance. The ratio of two estimates is then calculated statistically (Between and within groups variance). ANOVA tests are used to find if the factor which is given has important/significant. If the "p-value" is significant enough from the one-way test of ANOVA, it means that at least one of the factors is expressed differentially in one of the analysed groups. In case two groups are analysed, the ANOVA does not statistically find out the differences. In such a situation, a post hoc test is conducted to see if the pairs/specific pair is expressed differentially.

 

DATA ANALYSIS

From table 2, it could be inferred that for the constructs knowledge of the working environment, knowledge of market, knowledge of industry, knowledge of research methods, written communication skills, analytical skills, professional and ethical skills, oral communication skills, planning and organizing skills, teamwork skills, continuous learning skills, information management and documentation skills, leadership skills, problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, networking skills, corporate etiquette skills, conflict resolution skills, multi-lingual skills and numerical ability, the significant (p) value is lesser than 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, respondents (faculty members, management graduates and employer) have a significant difference between the KSA.

On the other hand, the table shows that the significant (p) value is greater than 0.05 for the constructs creativity and innovation skills, ability to be in discipline, ability to control distraction, adaptable ability and therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence, respondents (faculty members, management graduates and employer) have no significant difference between the KSA. Having identified a significant difference between KSA by respondents through the ANOVA test, it is essential to determine which groups of respondents were significantly different in their opinion. A post hoc test was done to find out the group which differs significantly.

conclusion

Management graduates require employability skills to face global competition and future world work. There is a disparity between the desired and actual employability skill among the management graduates. To bridge the gap between the actual and desired employability, the skill must be enriched with knowledge, skills and abilities [39]. Management graduates do not possess the skills required by the various industries, and hence the management institutions must take up necessary steps to improve the teaching-learning process [40].

Most of the researchers agree that there is a gap between the desired and expected skills.  This research goes ahead and studies the issue of employability from a KSA approach and the reasons for the gap. This research's important conclusion is the difference in the perceptual understanding of the KSA required for employability between the employer, faculty member, and student.

The study concluded that the management students' employability depends reasonably upon various essential aspects of knowledge, skills, and abilities. The employer's feedback A significant gap in the KSA was found in the literature review. ANOVA was carried out to statistically support the literature review and test the hypothesis drawn thereof. The analysis results from one-way ANOVA on twenty- five constructs on KSA were summarized with the gap between the faculty members, management graduates and employers.

The three groups considered in the study were faculty member, management graduates and employer. The mean scores of all three groups were found out along with standard deviation. Knowledge of working environment, knowledge of the market, knowledge of industry differed across groups based on the mean value. There was a significant difference between the working environment's expected knowledge, knowledge of the market, and knowledge of the industry in students. The faculty members and employer expected high knowledge when a management graduate entered the market, but management graduates assumed common knowledge. Thus, these variables affected the KSA of all three groups.

Written communication skills, creativity & innovation skills, analytical skills, professional and ethical skills, oral communication skills and planning & organizing skills differed across groups based on the mean value. There was a significant difference between the expected skills in students.Faculty member and employers expected these skills to be highly available in the management graduates, but management graduates did not give much importance to these skills. Thus, these variables affect the KSA of all three groups.

Further, the ability to be disciplined differed across groups based on the mean value. There was a significant difference between the expected ability of management graduates and faculties. Management graduates expected the abilities to be highly available in them, but faculty member and employers expected management graduates to be low in these abilities. Thus, this variable affected the KSA of all three groups.

Numerical ability, ability to adapt, ability to control distraction and global outlook differed across all the three groups. The faculty members and employers expected management graduates low in their abilities. Thus to improve employability management, graduates needs to work on it.

Management Graduates should understand this skill gap and take the support from their institution by creating an ecosystem for skill up-gradation. They believe that better career choices should be available. The students' development in terms of quality does not depend on the marks they get in the subjects after giving the exam. It depends on the knowledge he/ she gains from the teacher, practical exposure with industry, interaction with the class, attending workshops, conferences, and seminars. Students should understand the expectation of the industry, which is very important for the overall development. Thus, every management colleges/universitiesshould try to develop different ways to learn, like group discussion sessions, resume-building exercises, personality tests and mock interviews.The "course curriculum” of management institutions should be aligned as per the employers' expectations [41]. With the changing job structure and inclusion of gigs, boundary-less, artificial intelligence, and the government must create an ecosystem so that the new jobs or new working styles can flourish.

Thus organizations and management institutions must cooperate not entirely but ultimately develop skills and personal characteristics in the management graduate to increase employability. Management institutions and companies have to focus on soft skills and inculcate individuals' habit to take individual responsibilities of continuously honing their skills and adapting to the changing environment. This focus will help in their long term employability [42]. Today's employers look for skills like technological skills, problem-solving skills, teamwork, and communication skills. Management graduates need to develop these skills regularly.

The teaching-learning process and pedagogy used in business schools should help the management graduates develop and gain knowledge to meet up the challenges of the job. Students whom opt-out of campus placement drive and decide to become entrepreneurs should also possess the qualities that the employer expects and risk-taking ability [34].The qualities which employers expect from students need to be developed through a mix of a theoretical and practical approach.

The findings reveal that the student's overall development in terms of quality depends on the knowledge he/ she gains from the faculty members, practical exposure with industry, interaction with the class, attending workshops, conferences, and seminars. Students need to understand the expectation of the industry, which is very important for the overall development.

Students who do not go for the placement drive and become entrepreneurs also require the right set of skills, including risk-taking [34]. The employers' expectations from the students need to be developed with both sound theoretical and practical approach.

Based on robust global research with employers, a competency framework should be designed to provide guidelines to other stakeholders in enhancing the employability of the young generation. This framework can enable a new syllabus for the future to address the skills that employers will need [43] .It is essential to integrate individual learning aspirations through interlinked processes starting from curriculum design; industry connects to developing critical work-related learning for the specific sector of field [44].

The employer must take more initiative to remedy the situation as a lack of employability impacts their businesses directly. It must engage with academia on a sustained basis, not just during hiring season. As it happens in developed countries, an employer must play a more proactive role in developing the curriculum, especially the professional courses. It must also lobby with the government, if required, to bring about policy changes. There is enough evidence to link human capital development with long-term economic growth, a goal India cherishes. The Union Minister suggested regulatory bodies like UGC and AICTE work with the state universities to update the curriculum regularly. This cooperation should also include participation from industry, both national and international level, using technology-based education. This inclusive approach would make the education system more dynamic and increase employability [45].

Organizations and management institutions must cooperate not wholly but entirely to develop the management graduates' interpersonal skills and personal characteristics to improve their employability [42].An adequately designed curriculum with innovative teaching training and assessment methods can encourage candidates to learn. It can help them acquire the attributes which make them suitable for future jobs [46].Institutions of higher education and industries must work together to raise student understanding of the value of soft skills and lead students to take personal responsibility for the learning and growth of these essential skills so that they can consistently respond to the evolving job market and increase their employability [42].

Although higher education institutes seek to change their curricula to cope with national employability policies, there are some significant differences in what employers want and the qualities possessed by new graduates [47]. Universities should include curricula related to the improvement of "employability skills" at both the course and institutional level.

This inclusion needs to be done throughout the study and various programmes [48]. Employability skills are very significant in the job; the education system needs to properly integrate employability skills into every part of their training process [49].

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

The research to be summarised from the managerial perspective should emphasize the business management education's policy analysis from a higher-order consideration level. This research explored the reasons for the gap existing in employability with additional focus on a person's internal and external characteristics. Since employability depends on KSA (knowledge, skills and abilities), the individual holds and deploys it. Balance within each factor should be preserved for both of these assets' optimum outcome as the analysis is carried out based on the variables. The study's analysis is focused on the gap analysis in management education and the employability of management graduates. Situations of jobs emphasizing present placements provided by the management institution, hence the inputs are often obtained from the faculty members, employer and the management graduates contribute equally to employability. The employer focuses on written communication skills, Creativity & Innovation Skills, Analytical skills, Professional and ethical skills, oral communication skills and planning & organizing skills to improve management graduates' employability. The industry needs to help in creating a curriculum and support train the trainer programs. The funds of CSR could be channelized for skilling. The industry should focus on skill training to the fresher and reskilling the experienced employee. The duration of the internship should be increased, and the certificate should be given only after completion. The industry should visit campuses so that the students have a real-time understanding of the skill required. They should also provide career counselling to the students. Last but not least, the industry should create an inclusive, sustainable and equitable framework of employment.

 

 

REFERENCE

[1] S. Beechler and I.C. Woodward, “The global “war for talent”. Journal of international management, vol. 15, no.3, pp. 273-285,2009.

[2] G. Cappelli and D. Mitch, “Globalization and the Rise of Mass Education—Introduction”, In Globalization and the Rise of Mass Education,Palgrave Macmillan, Cham,pp. 1-121,2019.

[3] E. S. Ng and R. J. Burke, “The next generation at work–business students' views, values and job search strategy”, Education+ Training, 2006.

[4] E. Pollard, W. Hirsh,M. Williams, J.  Buzzeo, R. Marvell, A. Tassinari, C. Bertram, L. Fletcher,J. Artess,J. Redman and C. Ball, “Understanding employers’ graduate recruitment and selection practices: main report,” 2015.

[5] F. Karimi andM. Javanmard, “Surveying the infrastructure and capabilities for knowledge management Implementation in Supply Chain”, JIM QUEST, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 75–82, 2014.

[6] R. Chakrabarty, “Only 7 per cent engineering graduates employable: What’s wrong with India’s engineers”, India Today, Retrieved from https://www. indiatoday. in/education-today/featurephilia/story/engineering-employment-problems-329022-2016-07-13,2016.

[7] Luczynski, K. C., Hanley, G. P., and Rodriguez, N. M., “An evaluation of the generalization and maintenance of functional communication and self‐control skills with preschoolers,” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 246–263, 2014.

[8] N. Durrani and V.N. Tariq, “The role of numeracy skills in graduate employability”, Education+ Training, 2012.

[9] I. Bhattacharya and K. Sharma, “India in the knowledge economy – an electronic paradigm,” International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 543–568, 2007.

[10] A. Barman and J. Konwar, “Economic Humdrum and Global Competencies for 21st Century’s Indian Economy-what does Indian management education doing for it”,2015.

[11] G. Gowsalya and M. Ashok Kumar, “A Study on Identification of the Employability Skills Level among Arts and Science College Students in Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu”, International Journal of Business and Management Invention, vol. 5, no.9, pp. 1-6.

[12] S. Dhanawade and S. S. Bhola, “Employability Skills of MBA Students at Entry Level: An Employers and Students Perspective”, Sinhgad International Business Review, vol. 5, 2015.

[13] D. Bennett, “Meeting Society’s Expectations of Graduates,” Education for Employability, vol. 1, pp. 35–48, 2019.

[14] N. Y. Armoogum, B. Ramasawmy and M. F. Driver,”The need to enhance the employability competences (knowledge, skills, autonomy, and attitudes) of undergraduates in Agriculture. Evidence from students’ perceptions and employers’ expectations”,Tuning Journal for Higher Education, vol.4, no.1, 169-219,2016.

[15] B. Jackel, J. Pearce, A. Radloffand D.Edwards, “Assessment and feedback in higher education,” Higher Education Academy, York, Yorkshire, England., 2017

[16]"India Skills Report   -INSIGHTSIAS", INSIGHTSIAS, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.insightsonindia.com/2019/12/13/india-skills-report/. [Accessed: 02- Apr- 2021]

[17] "The Digital Talent Gap—Are Companies Doing Enough?", Capgemini Worldwide, 2017. [Online]. Available:https://www.capgemini.com/resources/digital-talent-gap/. [Accessed: 02- Apr- 2021]

[18] “B and C category B-schools producing un-employable pass-outs: ASSOCHAM,” AssochamIndia.[Online].Available:https://www.assocham.org/newsdetail.php?id=5651. [Accessed: 02-Apr-2021].

[19] S. M. Khalid and M.F. Khan,"Pakistan: The state of education", The Muslim World, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 305-322, 2006.

[20] B. I. Anell and T. L. Wilson, “Prescripts: Creating Competitive Advantage In The Knowledge Economy,” Competitiveness Review, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 26–37, 2002.

[21] M. Alavi, T.R. Kayworth,and D.E.Leidner, “ An empirical examination of the influence of organizational culture on knowledge management practices” , Journal of management information system, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 191–224, 2005.

[22] H. J. Einhorn and R. M. Hogarth, “Behavioral Decision Theory: Processes of Judgement and Choice,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 53–88, 1981.

[23] Anand and I. Walsh, “Should knowledge be shared generously? Tracing insights from past to present and describing a model,” Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 713–730, 2016.

[24] T. R. Merlo, “Factors Influencing Knowledge Management Use in Technology Enterprises in Southern United States,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 99, pp. 15–35, 2016.

[25] Wang, Z., Crawford, I., and Liu, L., “Higher achievers? Mobility programmes, generic skills, and academic learning: a UK case study,” Intercultural Education, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 68–86, 2020.

[26] M. Ghajargar and J. Bardzell, “What design education tells us about design theory: a pedagogical genealogy,” Digital Creativity, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 277–299, 2019.

[27] J.-T. Huang, “Hardiness, Perceived Employability, and Career Decision Self-Efficacy Among Taiwanese College Students,” Journal of Career Development, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 311–324, 2014.

[28] J.-F. Martínez-Cerdá, J. Torrent-Sellens, and I. González-González, “Socio-technical e-learning innovation and ways of learning in the ICT-space-time continuum to improve the employability skills of adults,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 107, p. 105753, 2020.

[29] H. S. Wimalasiri, “Employer’s perception on employability skills and attitudes of new graduates’ Qualitative insights from the employers in Sri Lanka,” Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 112–120, 2015.

[30] C.K. Wye and Y.M. Lim, “Perception Differential between Employers and Undergraduates on the Importance of Employability Skills,” International Education Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, 2009.

[31] Lowden, K., Hall, S., Elliot, D. and Lewin, J., “Employers’ perceptions of the employability skills of new graduates,” London: Edge Foundation., 2011.

[32] S. Abhayawansa, I. Tempone, and S. Pillay, “Impact of Entry Mode on Students Approaches to Learning: A Study of Accounting Students,” Accounting Education, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 341–361, 2012.

[33] S. Rosenberg, R. Heimler, and E. S. Morote, “Basic employability skills: a triangular design approach,” Education Training, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 7–20, 2012

[34] R. RITWIKA, “Employability of Post Graduate Management Students in Business School ,” thesis, 2020.

[35] E. Qenani, N. Macdougall, and C. Sexton, “An empirical study of self-perceived employability: Improving the prospects for student employment success in an uncertain environment,” Active Learning in Higher Education, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 199–213, 2014.

[36] Organization behaviour, 10th ed. Jakarta: Indeks Gramedia., 2006.

[37] K. Davis and M. Boulet, "Transformations? Skilled Change Agents Influencing Organisational Sustainability Culture", Australian Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 109-123, 2016. Available: 10.1017/aee.2015.51.

[38] V. Gupta,K. Gollakota and Sreekumar, “Quality in Business Education,” John R. McIntyre Ilan Alon, 2014.

[39] J. Santhi, “Enrichment Of Employability Skill Among Mba Students - A Pathway To New India,” ICTACT Journal on Management Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 679–682, 2018.

[40] D.M. GANDHI, “Employability skills in management students–an industry perspective”. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research, vol.2, no. 2, 2013.

[41] N. Nawaz, N., and Reddy, K.,“Role of employability skills in management education: A review,” ZENITH International Journal of Business Economics and Management Research, vol. 3, no. 8, 2013.

[42] C. Succi and M. Canovi, “Soft skills to enhance graduate employability: comparing students and employers’ perceptions,” Studies in Higher Education, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1834–1847, 2019.

[43] M. Rao, “Enhancing employability in engineering and management students through soft skills,” Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 2014.

[44] J. Bennett and S. Mcguinness, “Assessing the impact of skill shortages on the productivity performance of high-tech firms in Northern Ireland,” Applied Economics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 727–737, 2009.

[45] Z. Blasko, J. Brennan, B. Little,andT. Shah, “Access to what: analysis of factors determining graduate employability,” London: HEFCE., 2002.

[46] McMurray, S., Dutton, M., McQuaid, R., and Richard, A., “Employer demands from business graduates,” Education+ Training., 2016.

[47] B. E. Mansour and J. C. Dean, “Employability Skills as Perceived by Employers and University Faculty in the Fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) for Entry Level Graduate Jobs,” Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, vol. 04, no. 01, pp. 39–49, 2016.

[48] Manjunath, S., Shravan, M. B., and Dechakka, B. B, “A Study on Assessment of Skill Gap to Enhance Workforce Performance,” International Journal of Management,Technology and Engineering, vol. 9, no. 4,2019.

[49] N. Fajaryati and M. Akhyar, “The Employability Skills Needed To Face the Demands of Work in the Future: Systematic Literature Reviews,” Open Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 595–603, 2020.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: ANOVA

Constructs

Sum of Squares

df

Mean

Square

F

Sig.

Remark

WE_K

Between Groups

10.942

2

5.471

6.189

0.002

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

598.446

677

0.884

Total

609.388

679

 

M_K

Between Groups

31.707

2

15.854

20.277

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

529.299

677

0.782

Total

561.006

679

 

I_K

Between Groups

71.011

2

35.506

37.026

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

649.201

677

0.959

Total

720.212

679

 

RM_K

Between Groups

46.022

2

23.011

24.469

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

636.678

677

0.94

Total

682.7

679

 

WC_S

Between Groups

8.518

2

4.259

6.556

0.002

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

439.806

677

0.65

Total

448.324

679

 

CI_S

Between Groups

3.184

2

1.592

1.91

0.149

The null hypothesis is accepted

Within Groups

564.369

677

0.834

Total

567.553

679

 

A_S

Between Groups

17.559

2

8.779

11.06

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

537.405

677

0.794

Total

554.963

679

 

PE_S

Between Groups

30.993

2

15.496

18.847

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

556.631

677

0.822

Total

587.624

679

 

OC_S

Between Groups

27.51

2

13.755

15.961

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

583.418

677

0.862

Total

610.928

679

 

PO_S

Between Groups

11.366

2

5.683

7.095

0.001

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

542.258

677

0.801

Total

553.624

679

 

T_S

Between Groups

7.13

2

3.565

4.157

0.016

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

580.582

677

0.858

Total

587.712

679

 

CL_S

Between Groups

8.237

2

4.118

4.727

0.009

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

589.785

677

0.871

Total

598.022

679

 

IMD_S

Between Groups

104.503

2

52.251

59.287

0

The null hypothesis is rejected.

Within Groups

596.661

677

0.881

Total

701.163

679

 

L_S

Between Groups

13.32

2

6.66

7.385

0.001

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

610.533

677

0.902

Total

623.853

679

 

PS_S

Between Groups

149.15

2

74.575

63.505

0

The null hypothesis is rejected.

Within Groups

795.014

677

1.174

Total

944.163

679

 

I_S

Between Groups

6.782

2

3.391

4.103

0.017

 The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

559.499

677

0.826

Total

566.281

679

 

N_S

Between Groups

26.069

2

13.035

16.26

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

542.718

677

0.802

Total

568.787

679

 

CE_S

Between Groups

29.586

2

14.793

17.17

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

583.283

677

0.862

Total

612.869

679

 

CR_S

Between Groups

15.879

2

7.94

8.771

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

612.872

677

0.905

Total

628.751

679

 

ML_S

Between Groups

38.873

2

19.437

18.626

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

706.478

677

1.044

Total

745.351

679

 

D_A

Between Groups

0.946

2

0.473

0.387

0.679

The null hypothesis is accepted

Within Groups

826.185

676

1.222

Total

827.131

678

 

DI_A

Between Groups

1.47

2

0.735

0.747

0.474

The null hypothesis is accepted

Within Groups

666.117

677

0.984

Total

667.587

679

 

N_A

Be

33.745

2

16.873

17.504

0

The null hypothesis is rejected

tween Groups

Within Groups

652.578

677

0.964

Total

686.324

679

 

AD_A

Between Groups

8.701

2

4.351

5.218

0.006

The null hypothesis is accepted

Within Groups

564.452

677

0.834

Total

573.153

679

 

GO_A

Between Groups

13.017

2

6.508

7.463

0.001

The null hypothesis is rejected

Within Groups

590.389

677

0.872

Total

603.406

679