Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.396
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

A Study of Extraversion and Introversion Personality Characteristics of Management Students of Selected B-Schools of Gujarat, India



Dr. Kirti Makwana

Assistant Professor

Faculty of Management Studies,

Indukaka Ipcowala Institute of Management,

Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT),

Changa, Gujarat


Prof. (Dr.) Govind B Dave

Director, Commerce, Management & Humanities

Dean, Faculty of Commerce and Management

Charutar Vidya Mandal University (CVMU),

Anand, Gujarat


The present research investigates the introverted and extroverted personality dimensions of Management students of selected business schools of Gujarat, India, looking to explore statistical differences in terms of various demographic factors. 1067 management students of which 57.7 percent (616) of the respondents have Extraversion (E) personality dimension compared to 42.3 percent (451) Introversion (I), tested on NERIS Type Explorer® Scale. The findings of this research are also supported by earlier studies which confirm there are significant differences between Introverts (I) and Extroverts(E) personality dimensions concerning selected demographic variables.

Key Words: Extraversion, Introversion, Big Five Model, NERIS Type Explorer® Scale, Personality


Personality is a dynamic organization in an individual, which determines how an individual thinks, behaves, and feels and the psychophysical system determines a exceptional adjustment to its situation (Barrick & Ryan, 2003). Personality permits an estimate of what actions an individual takes in a given circumstance (Raymond Cattell, 1979). Personality traits are abstracted as stable characteristics in an individual which elucidates the individual’s tendency to specific patterns of behavior, perceptions, and sentiments (Bidjerano & Yun Dai, 2006). Personality traits are generally well-defined as long-term dimensions of an individual’s variances in the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions (Costa & Widiger, 2002).

The Big Five Model is prevalently known as the Five-Factor Model (FFM) developed by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa (2003) includes five personality traits, namely Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Conscientiousness (C), Agreeableness (A), and Openness to Experience(O) (popularly known as OCEAN model). These personality dimensions are believed as the universal, all-inclusive foundations of human personality (Leman and Lajunen,2010). Of the five dimensions, the researchers have used only extraversion factor in the current research.

Figure -1 The Big Five Personality Traits, Prepared Based on Various Literature


Review of Literature

Extraversion (E) states the extent and strength of social interactions (Cloninger, S.,2009). The notion of Extraversion (E) is part of many theories of Personality. Extroversion (E) relates to one’s capability to involve with the environment (Amiel and Sargent, 2004). The geniality, community interaction, and a predilection for companionship are expected to be followed by the individuals who score high in Extroversion (E) (Hall, 2005).  Extroverted individuals have a tendency to be energetic, self-assured, lively, lighthearted, outward, and appreciate neighboring themselves with others. Conversely, individuals, who score less in the extraversion attribute (known as Introverted (I)), are further expected to be fearful, considerate, and less likely to chase external community stimulation (Hamburger, 2002).

Carl Jung familiarized personality theory in his book, Psychological Types, in 1923 (Abrams, 2017; Opt & Loffredo, 2000). Jung (1976) divided personality into two parts, Introvert, and Extrovert. He promoted the terms introvert, and extrovert (Bernstein, 2015) He proposed that people are born with convinced temperamental characteristics (Opt & Loffredo, 2000)

Introvert Personality Dimension-Introverts are frequently considered by their capacity for inner likeness, and a need to comprehend the environment prior to experiencing it (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 1995). They need more time to understand, process, and respond to new information (Laney, 2002). They may appear disinclined to express their views, and ideas, but this may be because they require more time to understand the idea first (Cain, 2012). Introverts may be anti-social for the world, but they are societal in diverse ways. (Laney, 2001)

Extrovert Personality Dimension – Extroverts focus their energy outward. They understand the world by experiencing it, and do a lot of activities. (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 1995). Extroverted individuals tend to be more social, and like to meet new people. They can think, and talk simultaneously, and also prefer to share their ideas (Laney, 2001).  The figure below shows characteristics of people with high scores on Extraversion (E), and low score Introversion (I).














Figure -2 Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I) Personality Traits, Prepared Based on Various Literature



  • To explore the relationship between Personality (Introvert and Extrovert) dimensions, and various demographic variables of management students.


Hypothesis I - There is no significant difference in the extroverted, and introverted personality dimensions of management students based on various demographic factors.

Research Methodology

A sample of 1067 male, and female students, who were studying in the first or second year of the management programme during 2019 were selected. The sampling method was a cluster model with proportionate sampling in order to have a fair representation of all the regions, and management institutes of Gujarat. The research instrument of this research was divided into two parts. The first section of the instrument is Section - I - NERIS Type Explorer® Scale, whereas, Section - II of the structured questionnaire consists of demographic details of the respondents.

The questionnaire’s validity was calculated by Cronbach. The calculated reliability for this instrument is 87%. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. To analyze the research data statistically, descriptive statistical tests like mean, standard deviation, frequency, percent frequency, cross-tabulation, and inferential tests; Chi-square of independence, and Least Significant Difference (LSD) were applied to make the research hypotheses meaningful.


Research Model

Figure -3 Research Variables Model




Data Analysis

Table -1 Mean and Standard Deviation of Extraversion (E) and Introversion (I) Personality Dimension Statements

Sr. No.:





Struggle to acquaint with others




Often get so lost in thoughts and overlooking the surrounds




Replying to emails instantly




Difficulty in initiating discussions




Hardly doing something out of utter inquisitiveness




Sense of superiority to others




Motivated and active




Like to be a center of attention




Prefer an interesting book or a video game over a social gathering




Not taking much time to get involved in social activities




Enjoy attending social events




Comparatively reserved and silent




Anticipate the motives for human survival




Energetic after spending time with people




Prefer to avoid the center




Interested in uncommon and uncertain things




Initiate in social situations




As shown in the table -1, the mean score for Extraversion (E) / Introversion (I) ranges from 2.90 to 4.08 (on a scale of 7), which specifies that all the variables measured the construct highly contribute to the assessment of Extraversion (E) / Introversion (I) personality dimensions of management students of Gujarat. Additionally, standard deviation values are very high which demonstrates that there is a huge diversity in the personality dimensions of management students.

Table -2 Frequency and Percentage of Respondents

Personality Dimensions



Extraversion (E)



Introversion (I)



57.7 percent (616) of the respondents have Extraversion (E) compared to 42.3 percent (451) Introversion (I) personality dimensions. More management students in Gujarat are concerned with their external environment, and they feed off the responses of the individuals and activities around them. They appreciate forceful limits, and far-sighted of what the world can do. They lean towards taking initiative. 42.3 percent (451) respondents are companionable with many situations. They are reserved and choose to pay attention to others more sensibly. Very considerate, and appreciate more concentrated “on your own time” which leads to more, and deeper understandings.






Figure -4 Extraversion and Introversion Personality Dimensions and Demographic Factors (Professional)


The percentage of Extravert (E) was 55.8% (315), and 60.0% (301) for male, and female respondents respectively. Management students who studied in vernacular medium schools had Extravert (E) (56.3%, 432 respondents), as dominating personality dimensions. Respondents whose highest educational qualification in Under Graduate Programme was Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com), Bachelor of Technology/ Engineering (B.Tech/B.E), and Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm) have Extravert (E), as dominating personality dimensions. Management students who were studying in both 1st and 2nd year have Extravert (E) dominating personality dimension. (58% (328) and 57% (288) respondents had Extraversion (E) personality dimension for 1st and 2nd year respectively.) Students who have opted / plan to opt Marketing and Human Resource Management as their specialization are found more extroverted compared to Finance specialization students. Students who had 7 or more years of experience are found more outward and vocal.








Figure -5 Extraversion and Introversion Personality Dimensions and Family Demographic Variables (Respondents in %)



As shown in the figure -5, the dominating personality dimension was Extraversion (E) among various family demographic factors related to management students in Gujarat.


Table -3 Relationship between Demographic Variables and E / I Personality Dimensions


Variable * E/I


Variable * E/I

Gender (1)[1]


Family Size (3)


Age (2)


No. of Male Siblings (2)


The Medium of Instruction in School (2)


No. of Female Siblings (2)


Educational Qualification (5)


Religion (6)


Institute / University (28)


Father's Education (4)


Place (14)


Mother's Education (4)


Year of Study (1)


Father's Occupation (5)


Specialization / Plan (3)


Mother's Occupation (5)


Prior Job Experience (5)


Monthly Family Income (3)



Type of House (3)


A Chi-square test of independence was carried out to study the relationship between E / Ipersonality dimensions and various demographic factors. As the p-values of below-mentioned variables are less than 0.05, a significant relationship has been found between:



  • Extraverted (E) / Introverted (I) Personality Traits and
    • Medium of Instruction in School
    • Institute / University of Study
    • Place/ City of Institute / University of Study
    • Area of Specialization Pursuing / Plan
    • of Male and Female Siblings
    • Mother's Education
    • Type of House

It is essential to study differences between definite means. This can be done through by comparing means which are statistically different. For this, multiple comparison tests (posteriori contracts) are carried out, which permit the investigator to construct comprehensive confidence intervals which are used to make pair-wise assessments of all treatment means. Out of many such multiple comparison tests, the Least Significant Difference (LSD) is used to compare the pattern of Personality Dimensions among regions of Gujarat.

Table -4 Result of LSD Test among Pair of Selected Demographic Variables

Demographic Variable

The Difference of Opinion Among Pair Selected Variables

Demographic Variable

The Difference of Opinion Among Pair Selected Variables

Region / Place of Institute

●       Central Gujarat and

o   South Gujarat

o   Saurashtra

o   Kutch

●       South Gujarat and

o   Saurashtra

o   North Gujarat

●       North Gujarat and Kutch

Educational Qualification

●       B.Tech / B.E. and

o   BBA

o   BCA

●       Other Areas of Specializations and

o   BBA

o   B. Com

●       B.C. A

Prior Job Experience

●       7-9 Years and

o   No Experience

o   < 12 months

o   1-3 Years

o   4-6 Years

●       4-6 Years and 09 and Above

Areas of Specializations

●       Finance and

o   Human Resource Management

o   Marketing


●       Jainism and

o   Hinduism

●       Christian





Results and Findings

There is huge a diversity in the personality profiles of individuals. Every individual is different than others in terms of their behavior, attitude, thinking, decision making, and response to stress. It can be observed that there are variances between introvert and extrovert management students in all of the aspects. Every management student has his/ her unique characteristics which is influence the way they are exposed to the external environment.

Limitations and Future Scope of research

Selection of respondents in only management education at a given period time was one of the limitations of the current study. Nonetheless, future research may reflect a longitudinal research design examining introverted and extroverted personality traits. The study can be carried out using qualitative research design. The researcher can observe and appreciate the reflections of respondents if the quantitative and qualitative methods are combined. More interesting results can be generated with the close monitoring between researcher and respondent.


The present research explores the extraversion and introversion personality dimensions of management students of Gujarat state. This research study makes a significant contribution by exploring how personality traits (introverted and extroverted) of management students influence their thinking, feeling and behavior. The demographic factors taken in to consideration support the theoretical arguments of previous research.  The findings of the research paper should serve as a wakeup call for the organizations in their recruitment and selection process for managerial positions. Based on the characteristics / traits of an applicant he / she can be selected and allocated roles and responsibilities to have best person – organization fit.






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End notes:

[1]The Values in the parentheses indicate value of Degrees of Freedom