Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.603
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Effectiveness of Online Webinar/ Workshop/Seminar during COVID-19: A Perception Analysis of Higher Education Faculty Members


Dr Amit Kumar Arora

Associate Professor-Research

KIET, Group of Institutions,

Delhi-NCR, Ghaziabad


Sapna Yadav

Assistant Professor,

KIET, Group of Institutions,

Delhi-NCR, Ghaziabad



COVID-19 is the bliss for education globalization as we can see several numbers of programs during this COVID period having the involvement of the experts from all around the globe which was not possible in face to face interaction. As we can see that there is a sudden increase in the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar hence, the study aimed to know the effectiveness of the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar conducted during the COVID period. The study found a programme conducted by the renowned speaker and by the reputed institutions have more effective as compare to the other programmes. On the other hand, short duration programmes are more effective as compare to long-duration programmes. The study found to gain knowledge, to gain knowledge of the latest trends and to utilize the time as the motive behind the attending such programme.


Role of the teacher is not just to delivering or imparting knowledge to the students but their role is much more than that in nurturing students and from ancient time in Gurukuls we see that education is just to disciplining the students mind, their heart and their soul. So, personal or one to one interaction becomes more essential between teacher and students. Now a days due to pandemic we are using blended teaching but we don’t have the replacement of online teaching with the classroom teaching because teaching is not only to provide the growth of knowledge but also the growth of maturity among the students. In the students age there are many psychological issues which can be handled only through emotional connect in classroom teaching and also personal interaction is completely ignored in virtual teaching. One to one relationship is important for the overall growth of the student also in theory of communication 7% of the things you speak and 93% you have to understand by the body language. The mentor-mentee concept is forfeited in case of online teaching and also it degrades the traditional culture of cultivating the students mind, their soul and their inner-self which help in the process of the man’s perfection. Although online classes are the only way out during pandemic, so the teachers will have to update themselves with the technological advancement and also the students have to look forward with the latest technologies specially in COVID-19. Parents will also have to play an important role of teacher in continuous monitoring of the students at home. Blended teaching is mix of all and was developed by USA and this digital teaching/ blended learning can be the part of our life but definitely it cannot replace the basic teaching of learning. In virtual classroom the teacher is eliminating which can be the reason of lack of maturity in the students. In classroom teaching the teacher plays a vital role as it brings confidence as well as growth & development among the students. As globalization is bringing individuals closer to one another by means of various Information and Communication Technologies, online courses have become an imperative apparatus in guaranteeing on the web instructive condition in advanced education for closer between associations between understudies, instructors, analysts and different members of advanced education.

The word 'webinar' is a mix of 'web' and 'seminar'. An online class is an occasion held basically which is gone to solely by an online crowd. This recognizes it from a webcast, which additionally incorporates the nearness of a physical crowd. Different terms utilized as options for online class are web occasion, online course, webcast, web address and virtual occasion. An Online Learning Environment (OLE) is a ton of training and learning gadgets planned to improve an understudy's learning experiences by recollecting PC and the web for the learning strategy. We portray an Online learning condition as one that grants understudies to see nature, assess conditions and execution, perform exercises and proceed through experiences and activities that will allow them to perform better with all the more understanding on emphasis on comparable tasks in practically identical conditions.

One motivation behind why there is such a great amount of conversation around internet learning is that there are many indicated advantages and employments of web-based learning. The absolute most significant ones are: its viability in instructing understudies, its utilization as expert turn of events, its cost-adequacy to battle the increasing expense of post auxiliary training, credit equivalency at the post optional level, and the chance of giving a world class instruction to anybody with a broadband association. Starting at 2014, the all out national understudy advance obligation is more than one trillion dollars (, 2014). Numerous researchers and instructors accept that internet learning can be a compelling apparatus in battling the increasing expense of post auxiliary training by spreading the expense of a class over a lot bigger number of understudies contrasted with the conventional setting, partitioning the expense by tens or a huge number of understudies instead of handfuls.

Objectives of the Study

The prime objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the Online Webinar/ Workshop/Seminar during COVID-19. The followings are the sub-objectives of the study:

  • To determine the motives behind attending the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar.
  • To know the Factors determining the overall satisfaction level for the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar.
  • To know the attendees’ point of view on Online Webinar/ Workshop/Seminar.


Review of Literature

As per Indian Government’s guidelines and advisory to keep the educational institutes and other public and private organizations to be closed in lieu of COVID-19 since 22nd March 2020. In the world of digitalization, education system provides a great connect with digital technology and organizing different web-based seminars also known as webinars to impart quality knowledge and sharing ideas on different domain with the help of digital connect. Since it is not possible to conduct seminars during this pandemic several research papers were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of webinars and critical analysis from literature is reported in this section.

Tseng et al. (2018) concluded in their research and gave emphasis on separate TPACK that were clubbed with it via design thinking and help the teachers to solve problems. Moreover, there were two major factors that were affect the TPACK enactment; less attention and advance knowledge for student point of view as students and teachers are distance from each other and problem like quality related to sound as micro-level factor. They concluded that how TPACK sub-elements were associated while problems related to context via design thinking.

Wang, (2008) revealed that there was a positive relationship among students & trainers about web-based seminar in terms of theoretical knowledge, participation enhancement due to face-to face interaction, and also interaction among higher levels. Moreover, it also reported that web-based seminar initiation strategies effect on problems related to technical issues, synchronous vs. asynchronous knowledge.


Olson & Mccracken, n.d.  stated that outcome-based education was not achieved by adopting online mode and there were insignificant differences among ASYNC and ASYNC+SYNCH. He also added during evaluation of the students it is important to consider student’s learning experience and their invaluable time and equipment or resources that were used in e-learning synchronous activities.


Mckinney, (2017) believed that online training among health care workers were shown tremendous positive thinking in terms of behaviour and imparting knowledge. He summed up his research that web-based training is advantageous than conventional training with better technological advancement, minimum intervention. However, some elements are still needed to identified for online learning.

Mcmahon-howard & Reimers, (2013) concluded that child welfare agencies offices keen on giving CSEC preparing to their staff. He also discovered that a 90-min CSEC online class preparing is powerful for expanding CPS representatives' information about CSEC. Critically, the preparation altogether improved their capacity to distinguish the hazard factors for passage into CSEC, expanded their insight into local laws and services in regards to CSEC, and expanded their self-revealed eagerness to allude CSEC casualties and youngsters 'in danger' for CSEC to specific services.


Ja, (2006) found that two exact investigations are analyzed, and in this way additionally the effect of the instructive model planned between these two examinations is assessed. Specific consideration is paid to the subjectively distinct manners by which every student deciphers their investment in virtual connection and the effect of gathering taking a shot at their own learning. These discoveries lead us on to examine explicit procedures by which members could more readily see one another, make joint objectives and develop implications in virtual cooperation.

Gegenfurtner & Ebner, (2019) concluded that online courses were marginally more powerful than conventional conditions, yet the differences were trifling in size. Differences were directed by online class, attendee, accomplishment, and publication qualities. They also presumed that teachers, instructors, coaches, technologists, and scholars inspired by the technology based online learning mode, mentoring, and evaluation process of online course- based learning conditions.

Beinicke et al. (2019) focussed on the effectiveness of training in corporate. They emphasised and investigated different parameters like differences between e-learning and classroom learning and also scrutinised such strategies at different time interval. They found that training settings included before and during trainings were improvised in terms of fulfilling the requirement of older workers and provide backbone to the mechanism. Companies also proved themselves in development & design of online learning settings effectively. Before, during and after training settings were evaluated at different time period and significant differences were found among e-learning and classroom learning.


Hoke et al., (2017) revealed the wellness of strategies adoption for school to assess the certainty of webinars. They designed 8 webinars of 30 to 60 min and they were attended by the school management and teachers through online mode platform. Online courses give a practical strategy for guidance and instruction for school work force intrigued by techniques for improving a school's wellbeing condition. Further examination is important to decide the best techniques for advancing online course commitment.


Ever & Dimililer, (2017) found that students use online course content for inspecting the ideas talked about in lectures they recently joined in and they are progressively viable tools than their course readings and more efficient than students’ own notes. Technological developments are giving new chances to change the nature and conveyance of instructing without fundamentally expanding tutor outstanding burdens.


Park et al. (2010) addressed ‘transfer’ through online courses effectiveness in Industry and also contrast between the new representatives and the officials in understanding and use of online learning in industry. They tend to take the online courses of their own advantage or those with aberrant importance to their work instead of those with direct pertinence, which is unique in relation to the first goal of creating online courses.


Baig, (2011) focussed on comparative study between online learning and classroom learning for students of 10th standard and was found that due to limited resources classroom learning was not effective as compared to online learning and the average result of physics subject was compared and students found high marks when taught through online classes in which students are more centric and controlled towards their study than classroom learning.


Ebojoh, (2007) addressed online learning for higher education institutes and assesses the teaching methodology and evaluation during the span of 3 months during online classes and also found the major parameters that were creating barrier in online learning. During online classes the voice issue was found from both the sides and it was distracted the mind of students to some extent from study. Students were satisfied with the discussion on boards and different interactive approach during online classes. Delivery of lectures through web-based technology directly impacts on student’s evaluation and performance.


Sun & Chen, (2016) they reviewed more than 45 papers using qualitative approach analysis and major area of research was how the assessment of students done, how the theories were delivered and gave the effective solution for those who wanted to run the courses though online classes. They found that complete design of course content and teachers’ competency will enable the student to learn the course effectively for higher education.


Zhao et al. (2005) revealed that there were insignificant results between one to one interaction physically and distance learning for the corporate trainings and is validated by the meta-analysis (Machtmes and Asher 2000; Cavanaugh 2001; Sitzmann et al. 2006) were also focussed on the same and found ineffective and insignificant.


Black, Clauson, & Fraser, (2013) concluded that almost 88 to 90% of the individuals have shown interest in learning through recorded lectures and will take part in future also to enhance their knowledge though e-learning.


Buxton, (2014) addressed that synchronous people and asynchronous person both appreciate the content of delivery regarding pharmacists and were satisfied but asynchronous persons marked their experience better than synchronous people.



Research Methodology


The study focused to determine the effectiveness of the online webinar/workshop/seminar. The targeted respondents were faculty members of higher education institutions situated in Ghaziabad region. The data was collected through the structured questionnaire prepared on the basis of prior studies, self experience and discussion with the friends in the teaching fraternity. The reliability of the instrument was measured through the test-retest method having value of .813 which is quite satisfactory. 300 respondents were targeted out of which only 252 responses received but due to incomplete response from the 24 respondents only 228 responses were considered for the study. The study is cross sectional study conducted during the month of April to July 2020 during work from home period. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and regression analysis with the help of SPSS.


Data Analysis

This part of the study includes the analysis of the data collected through the primary source.

Respondents’ Profile

The table-1, below is showing the profile of the respondents:

Table-1: Profile of the Respondents

















Below 30









50 Above








Below 5 years



5-10 years



10-15 years



15-20 years



20 & Above








Under Graduate Programme (UG)



Post Graduate Programme (PG)









Assistant Professor



Associate Professor












Metropolitan City
















From the above table we can see that the 71% of the respondents are male and 29% are female. Majority of the respondents are from the age bracket of 30 to 50. On the basis of experience maximum respondents i.e. 66 are from 15-20 years category followed by 5-10 years category where the numbers of respondents are 60. Approx 83% respondents are from under graduate programme and 17% (approx) are from post graduate programme. Majority of the respondents are from assistant professor category and are from metropolitan city.

Motives behind Attending the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar

To determine the motives behind attending the online webinar/workshop/seminar the study identified the seven parameters mentioned in table-2, on the basis of prior studies, self experience and discussion with the friends in the teaching fraternity. Respondents were asked to make their choices on a five-point scale (5=Strongly Agree & 1= Strongly Disagree). Table-2 shows a descriptive analysis of the 210 respondents who have ever attended the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar explaining the Motives behind Attending the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar. 

Table-2: Descriptive Statistics - Motives behind Attending the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar

Response Options





Std. Deviation

To gain knowledge






To gain knowledge about latest trends






To utilize time






To know the protocol of conducting similar activity






To get connected with people






To get certificate






Compulsory by employer






Peer pressure






Valid N (list wise)






Source: Author compilation from primary data

On the basis of the above table-2, we can see that to gain knowledge (mean value 4.39), to gain knowledge about latest trends (mean value 4.33) and to utilize time (mean value 4.04) is the most important factors for attending the online webinar/workshop/seminar. On the other hand peer pressure and the compulsion by the employer are the least important factor for the same. It shows that the respondents are attending the online webinar/workshop/seminar with their self motivation and not under any pressure; which is a good indication for the learning.

Factors determining the Effectiveness of the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar


The study attempted to determine the effect of the renowned person, reputed institution, duration of the programme, and post evaluation on the overall effectiveness of the programme. To determine the factors which are positively associated with the effectiveness of the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar regression analysis is used.


 Table-3: Model Summary: Factors determining the Effectiveness of the Online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar



R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate








Source: Author compilation from primary data

From the above table-3, we can interpret that the independent variable are explaining the variation around 72%. The Durbin-Watson test value is 1.929, value between 1.50 to 2.50 shows independence of error.

Table-4: ANOVA


Sum of Squares


Mean Square






















Source: Author compilation from primary data

From the above table-4, we can interpret that the model is significant as the significance value is below .05.

Table-5: Coefficients


Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients



Collinearity Statistics


Std. Error













Renowned Person








Reputed Institute








Duration (Preferred 2-3 days webinar instead of 1-2 hours)








Post Evaluation








Source: Author compilation from primary data

From the above table-5, we can interpret that the renowned person and reputed institution are the significant factors for the effectiveness of the online programmes whereas duration and post evaluation are not significant factor for the same. From the VIF value we can conclude that there is no multicollinearity is found in the data as all the values are below 2. The study found no outlier.

From the below figure-1, P-P Plot we can see that the standardized residuals are normally distributed.

Figure-1: Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual


Attendees’ Point of View on Online Webinar/ Workshop/Seminar

The followings are some of the important point of views of the attendees’ of the online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar:

  • Online webinars/ workshops are a better option due to least or no cost involved. It is very economic and effective way to obtain knowledge and convenient too for the attendees, organizers and for the resource person as well.
  • This is very good to gain knowledge. We can gain knowledge from anywhere anytime which is one of the best parts of this.
  • A great medium to learn in your own comfortable zone. Definitely easy and effective.
  • Online webinar are easily accessible. If these are considered seriously for understanding, learning and improving the skills, it will be more effective.
  • It was good to interact with renown persons from the corner of the world but the way we express our self in physical manner is bit disagree while taking online webinars
  • It is an important practice in times of COVID-19 Lockdown, when you need to remain in connect and upgrade yourself. However, too many webinars of low quality and imposition on employees are only wastage of time.

From the above we can conclude that online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar are effective, time saving, cost saving, convenient and easily accessible which can significantly contribute to the learning. The barriers of the boundaries are now removed we can get knowledge from the expert from any part of the world. Though there is some conflict when we compare online verses face to face interaction; some are in favour of online while others are in favour of face to face learning.

Findings and Conclusion of the Study:

Majority of the faculty members are attending online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar. The average participation per faulty in the above online programmes comes to six. Only 61% respondents have responded that they were able to attend only 50% of the time duration of the online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar due to the non-professional environment at home. Majority of the respondents are agreed to attend the online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar after COVID-19 also. Out of a scale of 10 overall experience with the online Webinar/Workshop/Seminar found approx 7.7.

Most of the respondents are attending the online webinar/workshop/seminar with their self motivation and not under any pressure; which is a good indication for the learning. Majority are in the opinion that during this period their learning has been increased and they have effectively utilized the time due to the online webinar/workshop/seminar.

The study found if the online webinar/workshop/seminar are conducted by the renowned person in the field or by the reputed institutions in that case people are more interested to attend the programme and these factors are significant with the overall satisfaction level. To gain knowledge, to gain knowledge about latest trends and to utilize time are the most important motives for attending the online webinar/workshop/seminar.

Very few respondents have not attended any of the online webinar/workshop/seminar and the reason behind that is lack of internet connectivity and lack of equipments required to attend these programme.

Thus we can conclude that online webinars/ workshops are a better option as these are convenient, economic and effective way to obtain knowledge for the faculty members, organizers and for the resource person as well.


Limitations and Future Scope of the Study

Study tried to conduct an exhaustive survey on the effectiveness of the online webinar/workshop/seminar. The sample size of the study was 228 respondents only. Maybe with larger sample size, the results could have been different. The findings of the study are based on the data collected through the primary source, so if the respondents' responses are biased the result may be influenced. The study focused only on the perspectives of the faculty members of the higher studies of Ghaziabad district in India. Further, the study can be conducted at state or national level.  



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