Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.603
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Efficacy of Role and Perceived Organizational Support as Contributory Factors of Organizational Commitment


Abhishek Sharma

Assistant Professor

Faculty of Management and Behavioural Sciences

Sardar Patel University of Police, Security and Criminal Justice

Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India)


ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1788-6488


Ankita Sharma

Associate Professor

Humanities and Social Sciences

Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur

Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India)


ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1171-838X




The corporate world's present situation indicates that this is the perfect time to concentrate on organizational commitment because the economy is poor, and most organizations can no longer guarantee "a job for life."  Workers are either serving mechanically or feeling compelled to be more committed to an organization. Organizations of the 21st century explicitly agree that the current business world demands highly committed employees. It is the human factor, unambiguously positive ones, which explains the extraordinary performance of any organization. This multifaced demanding situation has made the notion of organizational commitment even more pertinent.

This research aimed to discover more about the contribution of role efficacy and perceived organizational support in organizational commitment development. The study data was collected using standard psychometric tools from 100 mid-level employees working in various private sector service organizations. Statistical analysis was performed to answer research questions.

The results of this study have essential findings, and based on that, it can be proposed that better, meaningful, and goal-oriented performance depends not only on physical resources, but workplace experience also matters a lot. This study can guide the practitioners about incorporating the desired components in the employees' job with which their role efficacy and perception regarding support from the organization can be enhanced. Findings indicate that ensuring both will lead to the desired state of commitment among employees, and they can become more effective in their roles.



In the present-day environment, the workplace is changing dramatically, and its demands for the highest quality of product and service are increasing. Employees who are faithful and committed to the company are no longer sufficient. Employees who do not want to use their energy and expertise to help the company will counteract the advantages of hiring the best-trained employees using the most advanced technologies. Employee organizational commitment is crucial to remain competitive in the face of these pressures. 

Organizational commitment

"Unless commitment is made, there are only promises and hopes, but no plans."

Peter F. Drucker

Commitment can be characterized as attachment and loyalty. Individuals can display this attachment and loyalty to their job, profession, or organization. Multiple definitions of organizational commitment are found in the literature. In a general sense, it is the employee's psychological attachment and an attitude reflecting an employee's loyalty to the organization.

Bateman and Strasser (1984) state that organizational commitment (OC) has been operationally defined as “multidimensional in nature, involving an employee’s loyalty to the organization, willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization, degree of goal and value congruency with the organization, and desire to maintain membership.”

Allen and Meyer (1990) expressed that the commitment to the organization can take several different forms depending on how it evolves, including affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Meyer & Allen (1991) said that "employees with an affective commitment to the organization continue with their employment because they want to, those with continuance commitment feel that they need to, and those with normative commitment feel that they ought to remain in the organization." 

The importance of employee OC is quite visible by the higher level of organizational performance with committed employees. Without employee OC, there can be no improvement in any area of the organizational activity. Employees treat their work as an eight-hour job without any intense desire to accomplish any more than what is necessary to remain employed.

OC is highly valuable and has a significant impact on the successful performance of an organization. There are many positive effects of employee OC(Sharma, 2019a). An organization with high commitment levels shows higher performance and productivity and lower levels of absenteeism and sluggishness. Workers who are strongly committed to the enterprise incline to stick with it, advance organizational goals, and are therefore less likely to leave, resulting in a stable and productive workforce. Other positive effects of OC include feelings of affiliation, attachment, and citizenship behaviour, which improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

Role efficacy

Robbins, Judge, and Vohra (2016) explained 'role' as "set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit."  The employee will have to expand on the role that has been assigned to him, and it will be up to him to decide how much he contributes to the role's evolution. An employee cannot be effective unless he has the appropriate experience, technical competence, and skills for the job.

Equally important is how the role he occupies in the organization is designed (Pareek, 1997). An Individual's role in an organization is based on his qualification, skills, knowledge, and organizational needs. With this, role efficacy will involve the potential effectiveness and evolution of the occupant and his role in an organization. 

Thus, the effectiveness of an employee’s role in the organization will rest on his effectiveness, the probable effectiveness of the job role, and the organization environment. This potential effectiveness can be termed 'Efficacy.' Role efficacy (RE) denotes to an employee's capacity to deal effectively with employment problems and the potential efficiency of their performance.

Pareek (1980) stated that some underlying factors contribute to the role's effectiveness and developed three dimensions of role efficacy that cover the ten aspects. These are role making (self-role integration, creativity, pro-activity, and confrontation), role centering (influence, centrality, and personal growth), and role linking (inter-role linking, superordination, and helping relationship).

Internal assessment and judgment of people's internal strengths and skills is facilitated by role efficacy. This internal examination can help you gain a better understanding of your own strengths and improve your job performance. Pareek (1983) reported that people who have high role efficacy appear to have less work-related tension, anxiety, and role stress; they depend on their strengths to deal with problems, practice purposeful behavior, continue resolving problems primarily on their own, demonstrate attitudinal commitment,growth orientation, and feel satisfied with their lives and job roles.

If a role gives the occupant a scope for improvement and growth, his efficiency and job satisfaction level increases. This helps the employee shed his dysfunctional attitudes, thereby relieving role stress (Sivapriya, Govindarajan & Ilankadhir, 2020).

Bamel, Budhwar, Stokes, and Paul, (2017) reported that people with high RE seem to feel less work-related tensions, anxiety, role stress, and increasing managerial effectiveness (. Role efficacy is related to employee engagement, job involvement, motivation, and attrition (Sinha, Abraham, Bhaskarna, & Xavier, 2014, Agarwal &Sharma,2011a). RE is commonly considered as a motivational concept for predicting positive work behaviors (Bray & Brawley, 2002). Hence it is expected that,

H1): Role efficacy will be positively related to perceptions of organizational commitment among employees.

Perceived organizational support

The concept of perceived organizational support (POS) was developed by Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, and Sowa (1986) to describe the mechanisms of worker commitment development towards the organization. Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, and Sowa explained that workers tend to "form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being." 

Employees with high POS believe that their organization will appreciate their added efforts that conduce to their organizations. They have faith that their organization will care for them and show adequate concern for them. Researchers demonstrate that employees perceive their organization as supportive when they find that the rewards are fair, when they have an opportunity for taking part in decisions and when employees see their supervisors as supportive (Rhoades, Eisenberger, & Armeli, 2001).

From the social exchange perspective, POS would strengthen the commitment to the organization (Eisenberger et al., 1986). Employees who feel supported by their organizations and care about the organizations would engage themselves in activities that further their goals (Eisenberger et al., 1990). POS is a significant predictor of significant work outcomes like turnover intent and commitment (Connell, Ferres, & Travaglione, 2003, Sharma& Sharma, 2021). Studies have indicated that employees who perceive that their organizations support them are more likely to be committed to their jobs (Celep&Yilmazturk, 2012; Gutierrez, Candela, & Carver, 2012). 

The potential for advancement and growth and positive working environments are both expressions of organizational support (Eisenberger et al., 1986).   Employees develop a sense of identification with their organization if they experience supportive work conditions that foster feelings of competence, accomplishment, and value (Eby et al., 1999). Supportive actions from the organization result in positive attitudes toward the job (Sharma, 2016; Sharma, 2017, Sharma, 2021a, Sharma, 2019b). POS is significantly related to positive job attitudes and behaviours such as affective commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement, and work engagement (Sharma & Sharma, 2012; Kaur & Sharma, 2011).

Based on the above, it is expected that,

H2): Perceived organizational support will be positively related to perceptions of organizational commitment among employees.

Origin and objectives of the research

Organizations are facing ever-increasing rivalry these days. As they prepare for new challenges, one of the critical components of their survival is maintaining and upgrading the organization's ability to use its human resource effectively and efficiently. The hiring of good employees is essential, but the organization's ability to build a committed workforce is even more critical.

If any organization seeks to increase employee commitment, it must first consider how each of these attitudes is shaped. It is well documented in the organizational researches that employee's perceptions and experience are linked to the output. As the above review also suggests, conditions related to support at work and perception of professional roles at work have a vast impact on employees and the organization. 

Beyond having made progress, the study of commitment may be more exciting and promising today than it was for me 10 years ago. Though studies support the link between POS and organizational commitment, most of them are more than a decade old. Another observation is that there is a scare of research-based knowledge to understand the relationship between role efficacy and organizational commitment.

Additional research is needed in the area of organizational commitment to understanding the processes through which it is developed. Therefore, the present study was executed with the specific objectives of attempting to:

  1. Examine the nature of the relationship between role efficacy and organizational commitment among mid-level employees.
  2. Examine the nature of the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment among mid-level employees.



Figure 1: Proposed Relation between RE, POS, and OC among employees










The population of interest for the present study comprises individuals working for different private organizations at the capacity of mid-level employees with a minimum of 5 years of work experience. The age range was from 29 to 55 years. The researcher utilized purposive sampling, and participants were selected based on convenience. 

After getting adequate permission, 125 employees were approached with questionnaires. A total of 109 responses (87.2%) were received from employees, of which100 responses (80%) were usable. The final set of participants included 100 mid-level employees serving different private sector service organizations.

The psychometric measures employed in the present research were as follows:

  • Role efficacy scale: Role efficacy was measured by the scale adapted from Pareek’s (1980) scale. The scale consisted of 10 items—the reliability coefficient for this scale was.72.
  • Perceived organizational support scale: This measure was developed based on the scale developed by Eisenberger et al. (1986). The scale consists of 8 items. The reliability coefficient of the scale was .74.
  • Organizational commitment scale: Six positively worded items were selected from the scale developed by Cook and Wall (1980). The scale was consisting of 9items—the reliability coefficient for this scale was.87.


The participants' informed consent was achieved after explaining the study's idea, operation, and utility. Respondents voluntarily completed the questionnaires. The participants were assured and informed that the purpose of the study is purely academic. Potential respondents were given guarantees of confidentiality in order to promote truthful responses.

Demographic items were included to gather information about participants' employer organization, work experience, income, marital status, age, gender, and education. 

Data analysis 

At first, reliability analysis was executed as per the suggestion given by Osterlind (2006) regarding testing the appropriateness of data collected on individual items of different scales. The other way to establish the reliability of data is to calculate Split half or test-retest reliability for the scores obtained on all the scale items. 

All the scales were shown, before administration, to three experts of the concerned research area, and highly ranked items/dimensions were selected. The final selection of items was made, keeping in mind that these items should cover the operational definition of variables to ensure face and content validity. 

After gathering the final responses and performing necessary checks, item-to-total correlation for RE, POS, and OC was calculated. Results indicated significant, Positive and high item-to-total correlation for all the scales. The Cronbach's alpha (α) was also found moderate to high (presented below) indicating the data's reliability. 

George and Mallery (2003, p. 231) propose the succeeding criteria for determining the reliability of any scale: 0.9 – excellent, 0.8 – good, 0.7 – acceptable, 0.6 – questionable,  0.5 – poor, and 0.5 – unacceptable.

All the scales were found to have internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha) greater than 0.70 (N = 109).


                         Table 1 Reliability of scales (based on data collected in the present study)



Internal consistency 

Role Efficacy



Perceived organizational support



Organizational commitment






Data were statistically analyzed through the computation of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis for examining the hypothesized patterns of relationships between role efficacy, perceived organizational support, and organizational commitment of themed level employees.


Table 2 showing mean and SD values of variables understudy





Years of service






Role efficacy



Perceived organizational Support



Organizational commitment




The descriptive statistics (Table 2) showed that the mean age and years of service were 47.5 and 14.9, respectively. Results also showed that these professionals reported a moderate-high level of perceived RE and POS. In context to the outcome variable, respondents reported a high level of OC.

Table 3 Showing the correlation of demographic and predictor variables with outcome variables.



Years of Service




Role efficacy


Perceived organizational support 



The correlation analysis results (Table 3) showed that age was significantly positively correlated with OC among the demographic variables. Among predictors, both RE and POS significantly positively correlated with OC.

Table 4. Stepwise regression analysis of demographic variables with OC (N=100).



R sq.

RSq. change











* p>.05; **p>.01

Table 4 presents the result of regression analysis utilizing OC as the criterion and demographic characteristics as predictors. Results show that among demographic variables, only age significantly positively predicted and explained 8% variance in the OC of mid-level employees, indexed by the R2 statistic.

Table 5. Regression analysis of RE with OC (N=100).



R sq.

R Sq. change

% variance

Beta Coefficient


Role Efficacy








Table 5 presents the result of regression analysis utilizing OC as the criterion and RE as the predictor. The result shows that RE positively predicted and explained 24% variance in the OC of mid-level employees, indexed by the R2 statistic.

Table 6. Regression analysis of POS with OC (N=100).



R sq.

RSq. change




Perceived organizational









Table 6 presents the result of regression analysis utilizing OC as the criterion and POS as a predictor. The result shows that POS positively predicted and explained 20% variance in the OC of mid-level employees, indexed by the R2 statistic.


The present study mainly intends to examine the relationships between RE, POS, and OC. In the proposed hypotheses, it is assumed that there would be significant positive relationships among the variables. The study results support both the hypotheses adopted for the research as RE and POS positively correlated and predicted OC of the employees.

The study's findings indicate the vital contribution of RE in OC among employees, which is rarely explored. Findings show that if employees perceive that they are getting a chance to work for an essential and precise process, they feel worthy and powerful. Workplace activities that add value to people's lives lead to their general well-being by meeting different employees' needs. (Agarwal & Sharma, 2011b). When the job is meaningful, and they feel confident and contributing, it increases the possibilities of expressing positive job attitudes (Sharma, 2019c; Sharma, 2021b). Therefore, if these professionals perceive their role positively, it enhances their sense of self-efficacy, self-respect, and overall well-being, contributing to all significant life areas, including job. Overall, the employees have a strong sense of self-worth. They recognize their value and want the management to recognize it as well. 

In line with previous research (Eisenberger et al., 2001), POS played a significant role in OC among employees in this study. Positive, helpful and facilitative activities taken by firms toward employees have been found to contribute to the establishment of strong exchange relationships, which generate obligations for workers to reciprocate in positive and advantageous ways (Aggarwal-Gupta, Vohra & Bhatnagar, 2010). Employees interpret the supportive organizational actions as employer’s assurance to them. They reciprocate their observations accordingly in the form of commitment towards the organization. It could be expected that if employees feel that organizations are concerned with their supporting role regarding the happiness and well-being of the employees, the employees may consider themselves as a part of the organizations, and feel a sense of belongingness and loyalty towards the organizations and may try to commit fully in the current organization.


In the organization, as in the case of personal relationships, commitment is a two-way process. If management wants committed employees, it has to be committed management. Organizational practices have to keep pace with the changing needs of the employees. Organizations may develop POS by fulfilling employees' socio emotional needs, thereby creating a feeling of obligation to care for the organization's welfare.

Organizations can increase employee commitment by providing fair and reasonable working practices in a relatively cost-effective way. Management should realize the importance of role efficacy in order to gain organization as well as individual effectiveness. Employees must feel valued and appreciated by management in order to remain committed. It is important to instill in workers a sense of self-worth. As discussed earlier, a well-analyzed and evaluated job role contributes to role perceptions and performance. Thus, it is advantageous for organizations to stress the importance of role efficacy, ways of doing it, and critical performance indications during the employees' job analysis stretch. Components like pro-activity, challenge, flexibility, creativity, growth, role loyalty, role power, problem-solving, helping relations, and role dependence have been important determinants of role efficacy (Singh, 2018). Organizations can use these techniques to show that they value and recognize the efforts of their staff.

OC is an attachment to the organization. As a result, how people are managed has a significant influence on their commitment. Hence, the employees' perceptions regarding the level of supportive organizational climate can contribute to their commitment to their organizations. Hence, one of the significant implications is that the managers should have a better theoretical and practical understanding of the significant positive link between POS and OC. Therefore, managers should increase organizational support that ultimately intensifies employees' commitment to their organizations (Meyer & Smith, 2000).  In other words, for boosting up the employees’ commitment, managers should emphasize factors like organization’s rules and policies, reward volume and system, career development programs (e.g., mentoring, training,coaching), decision-making procedure. 

Limitations and future directions

Without invalidating the findings and insights of the present research, some of its limitations can be revealed. RE is less explored in context to OC. In view of the reassuring results of the present research, further studies may include a larger and more representative sample from organizations of different types and employees of varying levels from all over the country is needed to investigate further into the relationships among RE and various forms of OC.

POS is generally measured as a one-dimensional construct in the literature, and the researcher also adopted the same expression. Future research could investigate the exclusive role of organizational support dimensions and their relationships with each dimension of organizational commitment, as per the three-dimensional construct of POS developed by Osca et al. (2005). 


Human resource management practices can be categorized as 'control' or 'commitment' policies. Employee conduct is regulated by rules, rewards, penalties, and monitoring. Commitment practices, on the other hand, aim to boost efficiency and productivity by creating situations that motivate workers to identify with the organization's objective and work hard to achieve them.

Most of the organizations these days are facing the challenge of maintenance of employee commitment. Management wants the employees to be productive, be proud of their organization, and remain with the organization for a reasonable period; it needs to acknowledge that employees also have needs, both as employees and individuals. 

By relying on the social exchange theory, findings of the present study verified that employees' commitment to the organization is influenced by their impressions of their bosses' care, support and concern for them.

This research offers evidence to recommend that role perception and workplace support elements can have advantageous impacts. If the employee perceives that the role he/she is playing in the organization is essential, valuable, and favorable, and their organization supports them in fulfilling these roles, they may enhance their level of commitment, which will help them work effectively and become productive.

In conclusion, it is easy for organizations to say that people are our most important assets, but it is challenging to provide evidence. HR executives must bear in mind that the focus of commitment "goes further than simple compliance. Organizations are supposed to put the "concern for employee well-being and development" at the core of the HRM and need to adopt ways to "win the hearts and minds of the workforce." 



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