Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.396
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Measuring International Tourists’ Satisfaction and Its Impact on Future Behavioral Intention  using HOLSAT Model : An Empirical Assessment of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer City

 

 

Arpit Saxena

Research Scholar

Department of Management & Technology

Government Engineering College Bikaner

 

Dr. Naveen Kumar Sharma

Sr. Assistant Professor

Department of Management & Technology

Government Engineering College Bikaner


 

Abstract

The advent of tourism as a significant socio-cultural and economic operation in many countries has changed the outlook to realizing its potential. Country and destination branding emerged as a marketing strategy to achieve various national goals worldwide, though developing countries were late to embrace it. Satisfied tourists transmit their positive experiences to others and tend to repeat their visits to the destination. This study seeks to assess international tourists' satisfaction visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, two major tourist destinations of Rajasthan. The data was collected from 330 international tourists visiting these cities. Paired t-test was used to ascertain travel expectations and travel experience gap scores. The study revealed that international tourists were satisfied with most Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city's attributes representing the Rajasthan. The findings of this study can be used in planning and implementing tourism policies to develop Rajasthan as a better tourist destination by meeting the expectation of international tourists. From the theoretical point of view, HOLSAT is used for measuring tourist holiday satisfaction.

Keywords: Future behavioral intentions, Holiday Satisfaction Model, International tourists, Tourist Satisfaction, etc.

Introduction

In India, foreign exchange earnings were Rs. 2,11,661 crore in 2019, and Rs. 615 crore in 2020. Presently, the travel and tourism contribution to GDP is 9.33%. Country India is home to some of the world's oldest culture and civilization. The Rajasthan tourism industry holds incredible potential for Rajasthan's economy, which can provide a driving force to other industries, create new opportunities, jobs and produce enough wealth to boost the economy of Rajasthan. India secured 34th rank as per the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report in 2019. In 2028, the tourism sector's contribution to India's GDP is expected to rise to Rs 32,05,000 crore. The Government of India initiatives ‘Atithi Devo Bhava’ and ‘Incredible India!’ have provided an impetus for growth to this sector. The development and growth of the industry depend on the quality of the service provided by the firms. The quality of the service has to be regularly assessed and improved to give the tourists a memorable and satisfying experience. Satisfaction is one of the most important variables to consider when studying tourist behavior since it affects destination selection. As a result, tourist satisfaction has become a priority research topic in recent years. The level of tourist satisfaction will ultimately be determined by how well tourist standards are met. The tourist will be pleased if the overall performance matches or exceeds his or her expectations.

On the other hand, the tourist would be disappointed if the perceived result falls short of their expectations. Rajasthan is known for its monuments, historical sites, temples, etc. Rajasthan has a large number of magnificent palaces and forts, all of which have exquisite architecture. Thanks to its rich and diverse community, Rajasthan has long been renowned for its vibrant arts and crafts. This magnificent land has preserved centuries of culture and history. Rajasthan is known for its jewelry, hand-woven sarees, paintings, and pottery. The Rajputs of Rajasthan are known for their hospitality, which has become one of the state's most recognizable characteristics. The state's residents are known for their exceptional friendliness. Rajasthan's festivals provide an opportunity to showcase the state's arts, crafts, traditions, and heritage. This research is developed to evaluate the international tourist's satisfaction in the two major destinations Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of the desert triangle of Rajasthan. The following questions arise in the researcher’s mind:

  • What are the different attributes of tourism services that need to be improved by the Government of Rajasthan so that international tourists become satisfied with these tourism services in the Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan?
  • How tourist holiday satisfaction dimensions affect future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan?

The destinations taken to measure the tourist’s satisfaction are Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city, representing Rajasthan. "The Blue City," "Sun City," and "Gateway to Thar" are some of the other names for Jodhpur. Mehrangarh fort, blue homes, temples, and other attractions draw visitors to Jodhpur. The magic, however, is in the old city itself, where hundreds of shops, guesthouses, eating establishments, and vendors make it a chirpy bustling city, particularly near the iconic clock tower and Sardar Market. Jodhpur is centrally located in Rajasthan, making it easier for visitors to travel across the state and see other attractions.

In India's northwestern state of Rajasthan, Jaisalmer is a popular tourist destination. Due to its large golden dunes and castles clad in golden honey sandstone is also known as "the golden city." This city is blessed with tranquil scenery, a rich history, and a vibrant community. The forts of Jaisalmer never lost their importance and were a focal point during numerous Mughal wars.

Literature Review

Customer satisfaction is regarded as a “psychological notion that involves the feeling of well-being and satisfaction that results from obtaining what one expects and hopes from an attractive product or service.”(Pizam and Ellis, 1999). According to Sini Raj S. (2016), the researcher investigated the satisfaction of domestic and international visitors who visited Kerala Beaches. The result revealed that domestic and international travelers depend on transportation facilities, travel guidance, etc. According to (Al-Ababneh, 2013), the study confirmed that the service standard has a remarkable effect on tourist satisfaction in destination amenities, accessibility, and attractions. (Canny, 2013), the study explored that the service standard had a positive relationship with tourist satisfaction on future behavioral intentions.

According to Tribe, J., & Snaith, T. (1998), satisfaction is characterized by the relationship of expectations and experiences of destination attributes. Since it does not contain set characteristics that are generic to all destinations, this instrument has tremendous potential.

According to Tribe, J., & Snaith, T. (1998), cited by Truong et al. (2007) reported that the HOLSAT model is concerned with travelers' perceptions (as assessed before arrival at the destination) and experiences (actual level of satisfaction experienced by customers after the holiday). According to Omar et al. (2015), the researcher used HOLSAT to measure the difference between expectation and experience of holiday attributes in Penang, Malaysia. The study found a similar blueprint of satisfaction and dissatisfaction levels for foreign and local tourists. The findings for attributes like food and tourists’ services should concern tourism service providers because they need to be built upon to boost tourists' overall satisfaction positively.

According to the study of Chan, D. ( 2016), the inflection of the study is to examine the international tourists’ satisfaction and give the benefits to other stakeholders such as government officials, hotel owners in Weh Island Indonesia, especially related to diving and snorkeling activity. The findings revealed that international tourists were not satisfied with the destination because some are below their expectations.

Todorovic, Nikola et al. (2017), the researcher used the HOLSAT model and compared tourists’ expectations and experience regarding destination attributes in Belgarde. The destination image influences tourists’ expectations. The author found that HOLSAT may be used for destination image research and tourist satisfaction.

According to Irawan, Popi. (2017), This research's main focus was to identify tourist satisfaction in various destinations of the Gunung Kidul Regency of Yogyakarta's unique region. The study found that tourists were satisfied with the attractions and accessibility while amenity received a low score, indicating that tourists were dissatisfied with the region's components.

Malodia et al. (2017) used the HOLSAT model to assess religious tourists' satisfaction when visiting various holy sites in the Himalayas, intending to uncover perceptions and experiences gaps. According to Vincentius et al. (2017), the study applied the holiday satisfaction   (HOLSAT) model to evaluate domestic tourists' holiday satisfaction level toward attributes of adventure tourism activity in Pindul Cave. The study revealed that tourist experience towards price, safety, equipment, facilities, natural scenery, etc., surpassed their expectation before a visit. Some attributes, such as cleanliness, weather, etc., have a less significant difference between gaps in expectations and experiences.

According to Truong et al. (2006), the HOLSAT model was evaluated as a source for evaluating tourists' satisfaction with a holiday destination. The researcher contrasted positive and negative holiday attributes against the difference between perceptions and experiences. Thuy-Huong Truong (2005) used the HOLSAT model given by Tribe and Snaith (1998). The researcher identified Australian travelers' holiday satisfaction to Vietnam and compared gaps between Australian travelers' expectations and experiences. The research revealed that this model is a helpful instrument for measuring tourists’ satisfaction.

According to Hossein Mousazadeh et al. (2015), the study's inflection was to measure the satisfaction of tourists of Gilan province in Iran using the holiday satisfaction model. The researcher argues that providing high-quality services to visitors would be the first step toward satisfaction and ensuring the tourism economy's long-term viability.

Slack, N.J. (2019), the researcher, explored international tourists' experiences and expectations of Fiji as a vacation destination. A modified HOLSAT model was created to evaluate tourists' positive and negative qualities of the vacation destination. The study found that international tourists’ were satisfied with some of the facilities, and the authority must carefully investigate the factors that lead to dissatisfaction.

Sharma Swati et al. (2020) examined the holiday satisfaction of inbound tourists to India and explored the incredible India Campaign's role in holiday satisfaction. The result revealed that information center attributes showed a positive relationship while overall satisfaction was negative and required prompt action in Delhi NCR. Nguyen et al. (2019) exhibited that word of mouth mediates the relationship between destination image components and revisit intentions and identifies the direct impact of destination image factors on word of mouth revisit intention. The study revealed that destination image factors such as tourism information and activities and leisure activities positively impact revisit intentions. The researcher also suggested that tourism agencies should focus on international visitors' safety when traveling to the destination.

Mahdzar, M. et al. (2018) reported that destination image attributes such as activities, events, cost & value, etc., have a positive impact on tourist revisit intention in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia. The researcher also exhibited that destination management should focus on attributes such as buildings, facilities, pleasant surroundings, etc. They suggested that the study be a guideline for improvement towards destination products and services.

Michael, N. et al. (2018) explored destination image's perceptions about a Western country Australia related to its culture. The study found the cognitive, affective, and conative images of Australia by a structured matrix. In this study, with appropriate to a cognitive variable, Australia was found to be family-oriented, pleasant, a fun place, etc. While from an affective perspective, it was seen as an exciting place because of various destinations' activities. International tourists showed strong feelings to revisit their friends at the destination related to the cognitive variable.

As a result, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer have received little exposure as vacation destinations, and adequate tourism marketing has been done in India. As a result, systematic research is needed to fill the knowledge gap among tourists from foreign countries and those visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city. This study aims to compare international tourists' perceptions and experiences to assess their level of satisfaction. The study should yield useful data that can be used to plan future tourism initiatives in Rajasthan.

Research Objectives

  1. To measure the satisfaction level and find out the travel expectations and experiences of international tourists visiting Jodhpur city of Rajasthan.
  2. To determine the satisfaction level and find out the travel expectations and experiences of international tourists visiting Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.
  3. To find out the influence of holiday satisfaction and destination image on future behavioral intentions.

Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no significant difference between travel expectations and travel experiences of international tourists visiting Jodhpur city of Rajasthan.

H02: There is no significant difference between travel expectations and travel experiences of international tourists visiting Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.

H03: There is no significant influence of holiday satisfaction on future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.

H04: There is no significant influence of destination image on future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.

Research Methodology

The present investigation is empirical and focuses on primary data obtained from international tourists using a structured adapted HOLSAT model. International tourists visiting the cities of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer in Western Rajasthan were the target population for this study.  More than 400 questionnaires were distributed to international tourists visiting the cities of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer in Western Rajasthan, but only 171 and 159 completed questionnaires were obtained from Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, respectively, limiting the sample size of this study. Non-probability sampling techniques determined the research sample. Judgmental sampling was used in this study. The research questionnaire was split into two parts. The first section of the questionnaire was intended to gather information about the respondent's socio-demographic profile and trip characteristics. The second section of the questionnaire contained eighteen questions based on travel expectations and travel experiences. International tourists were asked to evaluate each of the five attributes on a Likert scale on the point of five ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. SPSS-22 was used for descriptive statistical analysis and inferential analysis, including paired t-test, correlation, and simple regression analysis.

 

Data Analysis

This section shows the international tourists profiles who visited Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Western Rajasthan. This part shows the consequence of the questionnaire recorded by international tourists. The data were interpreted from a filled questionnaire that depicts holiday satisfaction and their future behavioral intentions results.

Section I: Socio-demographic profile of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Western Rajasthan.

  1. Jodhpur City: The researcher evaluated the demographic profile of the 171 international tourists who visit Jodhpur city. The interpreted table shows that majority was almost the same for males (n= 86, 50%), and females (n=85, 50%) and were mainly in the age group 25-34 years (n=68, 40%), and from the 35-44 years (n=43, 25%). Most of the international tourists were business people (n=55, 32%) and from others category (n=59, 35%) followed by student category (n=32, 19%). The educational level attained by international tourists was mainly graduate (n=73, 43%) and followed by postgraduate (n=64, 37%). Most international tourists were single (n=118, 69%), their visit to Jodhpur was primarily for leisure (n=150, 88%). For most of the international tourists, this was their first visit (n=139, 81%) to Jodhpur, and their traveling style was mainly independent (n=153, 89%) and international tourist length of stay at the destination more than five days (n=95, 56%) followed by 2-5 days (n=52, 30%).

Table 1: Demographic Information of International Tourists( Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan)

Demographic Variables

Categories

Jodhpur

Jaisalmer

Total

Percentage (%)

Number of international tourists

Number of international tourists

Gender

Male

86

74

160

48%

Female

85

85

170

52%

 

 

 

Age Group

Below 25 years

34

44

78

24%

25-34 years

68

62

130

40%

35-44 years

43

19

62

18%

45-54 years

15

11

26

8%

55 years & above

11

23

34

10%

Occupation

Business People

55

47

102

31%

Others

59

47

106

32%

Service

25

24

49

15%

Student

32

41

73

22%

Education Level

Graduate

73

56

129

40%

postgraduate

64

52

116

35%

Undergraduate

34

51

85

25%

Marital Status

Married

47

54

101

30%

Single

118

100

218

66%

Widowed/Divorcee

6

5

11

3%

Purpose of this trip

Academic

3

5

8

3%

Business

2

3

5

2%

Leisure

150

141

291

88%

Other Purpose

16

10

26

7%

Number of visits

First-time visitor

139

122

261

79%

Repeat visitor

32

37

69

21%

Travelling Style

Independent

153

137

290

88%

On package tour

18

22

40

12%

Length of stay

Less than two days

24

68

92

27%

2-5 days

52

77

129

40%

More than five days

95

14

109

33%

 

  1. Jaisalmer City: The researcher evaluated the demographic profile of the 159 international tourists who visit Jaisalmer city. The researcher depicted the findings from the above table that majority were females (n=85, 53.5%) followed by males (n= 74, 46.5%), and were mainly in the age group 25-34 years (n=62, 39%), below 25 years (n=44, 27.7%). Most of the international tourists were business people (n=47, 29.6%) and others category (n=47, 29.6%) followed by student category (n=41, 25.8%). The educational level attained by international tourists was mainly graduate (n=56, 35.2%). Most international tourists were single (n=100, 62.9%), and their visit to Jaisalmer was primarily for leisure (n=141, 88.7%). For most of the international tourists, this was their first visit (n=122, 76.7%) to Jaisalmer, and their traveling style was mainly independent (n=137, 86.2%), and international tourist stayed at the destination 2-5 days (n=77, 48.4%) followed by less than two days (n=68, 42.8%).

Results and Discussion

Section II: International Tourist Satisfaction: Dimensions of the HOLSAT Model

This study provides further insight into the degree of satisfaction for international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan. The eighteen attributes listed for the analysis can be classified into the HOLSAT model's five dimensions. Seven of the eighteen variables receive unfavorable ratings. In the case of Jodhpur city, Table 5 boldly indicates negative items, while others receive positive scores. On the other hand, four variables in Jaisalmer city receive negative scores (shown in table 7) while the rest receive positive scores.

Table- 2: Satisfaction of the Jodhpur Tourists

(According to Gap score HOLSAT Model)

No.

Statement

Expectations

(E)

Experiences

(P)

Mean Difference

 

t-test*

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

(P-E)

t

Sig. (2- tailed)

1

I would be able to visit historical sites

3.99

.844

4.66

0.74

.485

6.83

.000

2

Availability of the tourist guide at the entry points

4.35

1.03

4.32

0.83

.730

8.29

.000

3

The hotels' buildings and layout would be visually pleasing

2.54

.992

3.56

0.89

-.485

-5.40

.000

4

Changing money would be difficult

2.98

1.03

3.07

1.36

-.122

-1.25

.211

5

I would be able to experience Rajasthan people lifestyle

4.18

.952

4.22

1.01

.479

5.89

.000

6

I would be able to use local transport

3.59

1.10

4.28

1.09

.637

7.97

.000

7

I would be able to witness traditional Rajasthan folk music and dance

4.04

1.03

4.12

1.07

.532

5.59

.000

8

Immigration and Customs clearance would be slow and inefficient

3.19

1.00

2.70

1.38

-.157

-1.45

.149

9

There would be many beggars & street vendors

3.74

.955

1.94

1.17

-.198

-1.97

.050

10

Facilities in the room would function properly

3.42

.873

3.84

1.03

.426

4.86

.000

11

There would be shortage of some food or fresh waters

3.07

1.16

3.02

1.42

-.046

-.453

.651

12

I would be able to mix and talk with the local people

3.69

.934

4.30

0.95

.614

7.88

.000

13

In-flight service would be of a high quality

3.40

.943

3.67

1.18

.269

3.23

.001

14

I would be able to shop Rajasthani artifacts

4.02

.870

4.40

0.88

.380

4.557

.000

15

Hotels’ meals would be of high quality

3.43

.833

3.99

0.91

.561

7.016

.000

16

I would feel safe while traveling

3.51

.844

4.35

0.84

.842

10.23

.000

17

There would be a lack of public toilet facilities

2.66

1.03

2.54

1.19

-.122

-1.25

.213

18

I would be able to get rented a bicycle or motorcycle and go sightseeing

3.45

.992

2.98

0.82

-.461

-6.25

.000

 

Table- 3: Satisfaction of the Jaisalmer Tourists

(According to Gap score HOLSAT Model)

 

No.

Statement

Expectations

(E)

Experiences

(P)

Mean Difference

 

t-test

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

(P-E)

t

Sig.(2-tailed)

1

I would be able to visit historical sites

4.48

.833

4.76

.688

.276

5.32

.000

2

Availability of the tourist guide at the entry points

3.83

1.16

4.32

1.02

.490

-3.22

.002

3

The hotels' buildings and layout would be visually pleasing

4.03

.950

4.03

.916

-.245

6.53

.000

4

Changing money would be difficult

3.48

1.28

3.66

1.33

.176

1.52

.129

5

I would be able to experience Rajasthani people lifestyle

3.11

1.34

4.11

4.11

.176

2.35

.020

6

I would be able to use local transport

3.91

1.11

4.23

4.23

.320

4.38

.000

7

I would be able to witness traditional Rajasthan folk music and dance

3.79

1.09

4.03

4.03

.238

3.28

.001

8

Immigration and Customs clearance would be slow and inefficient

3.93

1.08

2.85

2.84

-.270

-1.84

.066

9

There would be many beggars & street vendors

1.96

.957

1.97

1.19

.006

.063

.950

10

Facilities in the room would function properly

3.60

1.00

3.77

1.01

.169

1.75

.082

11

There would be shortage of some food or fresh waters

3.67

1.37

3.79

1.31

.113

1.17

.243

12

I would be able to mix and talk with the local people

3.79

1.31

4.35

1.31

.515

6.63

.000

13

In- flight service would be of a high quality

3.83

1.03

4.00

1.03

.301

4.53

.000

14

I would be able to shop Rajasthani artifacts

3.69

1.07

4.42

1.07

.238

3.73

.000

15

Hotels’ meals would be of high quality

4.17

1.07

3.84

1.07

.276

3.44

.001

16

I would feel safe whilst traveling

3.55

.997

4.49

.997

.723

9.12

.000

17

There would be a lack of public toilet facilities

2.91

1.34

2.91

1.24

-.006

-.052

.959

18

I would be able to get rented a bicycle or motorcycle and go sightseeing

3.76

1.07

3.82

1.07

-.389

-5.01

.000

 

Hypothesis Testing

Testing of Hypothesis H01: There is no significant difference between travel expectations and travel experiences of international tourists visiting the Jodhpur region of Rajasthan.

Table- 4: Result of paired t-test between Experiences and Expectations of international tourists visiting Jodhpur city

 

Paired Differences

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Travel Experiences (P)- Travel Expectations (E)

.24238

.41857

2.457

17

.025

 

The mean paired difference between travel experiences and travel expectations of international tourists visiting Jodhpur city are positive (.24238). The obtained t- value is (2.457) at right-tailed, which shows that difference between expectations and experiences is significant (.025). The researcher rejected H01 at a 5 percent level of significance and revealed a significant difference between international tourists' travel expectations and travel experiences using the modified HOLSAT model in Jodhpur city.

Table- 5: Result of Jodhpur City

Dimensions

Numbers in Statements

Total Statements

Experiences (P)

Expectations (E)

Gap Score

Mean

 

Mean

(P-E)

Attractions

1, 5, 7

3

4.3392

3.8401

0.4990

Activities

9, 12, 16, 18

4

3.3991

3.2003

0.1988

Accessibility

2, 6, 8, 13

4

3.7471

3.3772

0.3699

Accommodation

3, 10, 15

3

3.8012

3.6335

0.1676

Amenities

4, 11, 14, 17

4

3.2631

3.2412

0.0219

* Bold numbers show negative gap scores.

Testing of Hypothesis H02: There is no significant difference between travel expectations and travel experiences of international tourists visiting Jaisalmer city of Western Rajasthan.

Table-6: Result of paired t-test between Experiences and Expectations of international tourists visiting Jaisalmer city

 

Paired Differences

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Standard deviation

Travel Experiences (P)- Travel Expectations (E)

.17297

.28093

2.612

17

.018

 

The mean paired difference between travel experiences and travel expectations of international tourists visiting Jaisalmer city is positive (.17297). The obtained t- value is (2.612) at right-tailed, which shows that difference between expectations and experiences is significant (.025). The researcher rejected H02 at a 5 percent level of significance and revealed a significant difference between international tourists' travel expectations and travel experiences using the modified HOLSAT model in Jaisalmer city.

Table- 7: Result of Jaisalmer City

Dimensions

Numbers in Statements

Total Statements

Experiences (P)

Expectations (E)

Gap Score

Mean

 

Mean

(P-E)

Attractions

1, 5, 7

3

4.3018

4.0713

0.2305

Activities

9, 12, 16, 18

4

3.5629

3.3490

0.2138

Accessibility

2, 6, 8, 13

4

3.8506

3.6399

0.2107

Accommodation

3, 10, 15

3

3.7987

3.7316

0.0671

Amenities

4, 11, 14, 17

4

3.7044

3.5890

0.1153

* Bold numbers show negative gap scores.

Testing of Hypothesis H03 (There is no significant influence of holiday satisfaction on future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.)

To test the H02, the researcher tried to determine the influence of destination image on future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan and to check the statistical significance of correlation analysis. The researcher used a t-test in SPSS.

Table-8: Correlations coefficients between holiday satisfaction and future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.

 

 

Holiday Satisfaction

Future Behavioral Intentions

Holiday Satisfaction

Pearson Correlation

1

.287

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

N

330

330

Future Behavioral Intentions

Pearson Correlation

.287

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

N

330

330

Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

Predictor holiday satisfaction had a significant positive correlation (.287) with dependent variable future behavioral intentions, as seen in the above table. The holiday satisfaction has a significant correlation (p<0.05) with future behavioral intentions, as seen in the above table.

For measuring the degree of influence of holiday satisfaction on future behavioral intentions and model development, the researcher used simple regression analysis.

Table- 9: Simple Regression Model for hypothesis H02

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Durbin-Watson

 
 

1

.287a

.082

.079

.650

1.887

 

Table-9 displays the model description for hypothesis H02, which contains correlation coefficient R and its square. The dependent and independent variables have a correlation value of .287.

Table- 10: ANOVA for hypothesis H02

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

12.423

1

12.423

29.370

.000b

Residual

138.738

328

.423

 

 

Total

151.161

329

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: Future Behavioral Intentions

b. Predictors: (Constant), Holiday Satisfaction

 

In this study, p < 0.0005, which is less than 0.05, indicates the good fit for the data means this model significantly estimates the outcome variable. The above table signifies analysis of variance; the F value is 29.370, which is above the threshold of independent variable shows the model fit, while the p-value is below 0.05 shows significance. It shows that the null hypothesis is rejected: holiday satisfaction has no relation with future behavioral intentions.

Table- 11: Coefficients

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

2.683

.318

 

8.447

.000

Holiday Satisfaction

.457

.084

.287

5.419

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Future Behavioral Intentions

The influence of holiday satisfaction (b=.457, p=.000) is significant, and its coefficient is positive, indicating that the greater the holiday satisfaction, the greater the future behavioral intentions. This can be summarized as follows:

Y= α + βX

 

Here Y= Future Behavioral Intentions (FBI)

         α = constant

          X= Holiday Satisfaction

To present the regression equation as:

Future Behavioral Intentions (FBI) = 2.683 + .457 (Holiday Satisfaction)

Testing of Hypothesis H04 (There is no significant influence of destination image on future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.)

To test the H04, the researcher tried to determine the influence of destination image on future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan and to check the statistical significance of correlation analysis. The researcher used a t-test in SPSS.

Table- 12 depicts the correlation, which represents the value of the Pearson correlation coefficients between destination image and future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.

Table-12: Correlations coefficients between destination image and future behavioral intentions of international tourists visiting Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of Rajasthan.

 

 

Destination Image

Future Behavioral Intentions

Destination Image

Pearson Correlation

1

.356

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

N

330

330

Future Behavioral Intentions

Pearson Correlation

.356

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

N

330

330

 

The above table demonstrates the relationship between destination image and the dependent variable future behavioral intentions had a significant positive correlation (.356) with future behavioral intentions and signifies that that predictor variable destination image has a significant correlation (p<0.05) with future behavioral intentions.

 

For measuring the degree of influence of destination image on future behavioral intentions and model development, the researcher applied simple regression analysis.

Table-13: Simple Regression Model for Hypothesis H03

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Durbin-Watson

1

.356a

.126

.124

.63451

1.928

a. Predictors: (Constant), Destination Image

 

b. Dependent Variable: Future Behavioral Intentions

 

 

Table-13 demonstrates the correlation between the destination image and future behavioral intentions is R (.356), while R square value of 0.126, with destination image explaining just 1.26 percent of future behavioral intentions.

Table-14: ANOVA  for Hypothesis H03

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

19.107

1

19.107

47.458

.000b

Residual

132.054

328

.403

 

 

Total

151.161

329

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: Future Behavioral Intentions

b. Predictors: (Constant), Destination Image

 

The table-14 shows an analysis of variance. The F value is 47.458, above the threshold of independent variable shows the model fit, while the p-value is below 0.05 shows significance.

Table- 15: Coefficients for Hypothesis H03

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

2.561

.268

 

9.552

.000

Destination Image

.473

.069

.356

6.889

.000

 

The Coefficients table-15 shows t value is about 1.96, which is above the threshold. It shows that the null hypothesis is rejected, which was destination image has no relation with future behavioral intentions.

The influence of destination image (b=.473, p=.000) is significant, and its coefficient is positive, indicating that the greater the destination image, the greater the future behavioral intentions. This can be summarized as follows:

Y= α + βX

Here Y= Future Behavioral Intentions (FBI)

         α = constant

          X= Destination Image

Future Behavioral Intentions (FBI) = 2.561 + .473 (Destination Image)

 

To present the regression equation as:

 

 

Conclusion

Tourism makes a huge contribution to the country's economy. Tourism is a significant source of foreign currency earnings. The researcher examined tourist satisfaction and conducted a survey using Tribe and Snaith's Holiday Satisfaction (HOLSAT) model (1998). This method of determining international tourist satisfaction in Jodhpur and Jaisalmer city of the desert triangle of Rajasthan reveals that, on the whole, international tourists are pleased with the region's attributes such as activities, accessibility, amenities, and accommodation. The HOLSAT method was used to calculate the mean of expectation and experience in this study. The results show that the attraction aspect, accessibility, and activities are considered the best elements, resulting in satisfaction for international visitors. The study also shows that most international tourists will suggest, repeat, and say positive things about this destination.

The researcher identified seven dissatisfactory attributes of international tourists in the Jodhpur region, such as hotels building and layout was not visually pleasing. Tourists could not get rented a bicycle or motorcycle for sightseeing, and there were many beggars at the different places of the city. They were also disappointed with changing money services and immigration and customs clearance services. They observed that there was a lack of public toilet facilities and shortages of some food or freshwaters.

The researcher also identified four attributes that provide dissatisfaction to international tourists in Jaisalmer city. They observed hotels building, and the layout was not visually pleasing and lack of public toilet facilities. International tourists were disappointed with the immigration and customs clearance service and could not rent a bicycle or motorcycle for sightseeing.

These characteristics that have struggled to satisfy international visitors provide opportunities for the Rajasthan government and local government authorities to further enhance and improve international tourists’ satisfaction with the desert triangle of Rajasthan as an idealistic holiday destination. The overall pre-trip travel expectations and actual travel experiences, and satisfaction levels have strong implications in the tourism management of Rajasthan. As a result of a comparison between pre-trip travel expectations and actual travel experiences, the results aid in a deeper understanding of international tourists' behavior when visiting Rajasthan's desert triangle.

In addition, the findings of this study would benefit the Rajasthan tourism sector in terms of promotional strategy and service development. Creating a positive image of Rajasthan in the international market is just as critical as creating a pleasant experience and developing a destination image in international tourists' minds. Local officials should ensure the satisfaction of international tourists in the desert triangle of Rajasthan and inspire them to return in the future and spread only positive messages to others.

Limitations and Directions for Future Research

Although this study contributes to our understanding of tourism satisfaction, it does have some drawbacks that could be addressed in future studies. The study's main drawback is the small sample size. With a greater sample size, the study's findings would almost certainly improve. In terms of the study's context, it's worth noting that most of the data was gathered at a single point in time. The outcome can differ depending on the type of tourist. The participants in this study (foreign tourists) are a diverse group with presumably above-average cognitive abilities. As a result, there is a clear need to replicate this analysis using a sample with a similar demographic profile to increase the findings' generability. Though this study shows the degree of satisfaction of international visitors to Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, several areas and locations need further investigation.

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www.rajasthantourism.gov.in

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