Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.603
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

A Bibliometric Study and Content Analysis on Sales Promotion based on Web of Science Database


Sushma Yadav

Research Scholar,

Department of Commerce,

Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak


Dr. Kapil Malhotra

Assistant Professor,

Department of Commerce,

Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak




The study's goal is to analyze the concept of sales promotion using bibliometrics. The study makes an effort to pinpoint the key publications, authors, nations, affiliations and scientific mapping and Content analysis in this area. The enormous amounts of data from numerous papers that were included in this study were analyzed using the Web of Science database. The study used these records as the basis for bibliometric analysis to identify key topics in this area. The VOS viewer programme is then used to display network maps of co-authorship, source citation,co-citation, and keyword analysis. The results of this study show that the "Journal of Business Research," which includes 23 articles, is the most influential journal. Additionally, Burton S. is the most noteworthy author; the United States of America is the most productive country; and the University of Groningen, with 23 papers, is the most prestigious institution. The study's limitations derive from the fact that only the Web of Science database was searched for papers. Future research may take advantage of more databases like Google Scholar and Scopus. Another limitation is that only business and management-related data sources, publications, and review papers are used for analysis, and only English is used as the analytical language. This research adds to the body of already existing knowledge on sales promotion. Using bibliometric approaches, one can obtain a very accurate and true representation of the area. The recommendations could aid in directing the authors' interests in undertaking more research on this topic.

Keywords- Bibliometrics analysis, R studio, review, sales promotion, VOS viewer


In the current period, the world of marketing is evolving at a rapid pace, and manufacturers must be more adaptable in their research and development by enhancing their products and marketing strategies so that they can be applied accurately and in accordance with the current market. The success of a business may depend as much on its marketing strategies as on the quality of the products and services it offers. A good marketing strategy requires a promotional mix. A promotional mix incorporates many marketing techniques, such as public relations, sales promotion, advertising, and direct marketing, to achieve a specific marketing goal.

Since the 1960s, sales promotions have been steadily increasing, and they are now one of the most prominent elements of the promotional mix. A sales promotion is a short-range motivating tactic to enhance brand awareness and sales revenue (Kotler, 2000). Additionally, it is a tactic that takes minimal time to boost revenue (Banerjee, 2009). This tactic may succeed in attracting and retaining clients while fostering linkages with suppliers (Oly Ndubisi & Tung Moi, 2006). Furthermore, it motivates staff to take an equitable part in sales (Brassington & Pettitt, 2006). Sales promotion is "a set of diverse and often short-term stimulant tools used to stimulate consumers or business units to buy faster or buy more goods or services" (Rojuee and Rojuee, 2017). It is a collection of marketing strategies used within a suitable marketing strategy that adds value to a product or service above and beyond what is generally provided in order to accomplish certain marketing and sales objectives. This improved value could be of a strategic or more long-term nature (Brassington and Pettitt, 2000). "Those marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising, and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness, such as display, shows, demonstrations, expositions, and various other non-current selling efforts, not in ordinary routine." (Philip Kotler, 2008). The act of convincing target clients that they want a product more than anything else by presenting it to them in the most alluring and persuasive way possible is known as sales promotion (Morais, 1996).

Literature Review

The comprehensive literature review revealed that sales promotion refers to all non-media promotions, including trade schemes, customer incentives, and sales force incentives, all of which are intended to have a short-term impact on sales volume (Martin, 1972). In addition to advertising, personal selling, publicity, and direct marketing, sales promotions often involve reward offerings and interest-creating activities (Kazmi & Batra, 2007) In order to promote the buying or selling of a good or service, such an action was carried out (Strang, 1976), which was done to persuade trade clients or end customers to buy a product for the first time, buy more, do so earlier, and spend more frequently (Quelch, 1983). It is a marketing campaign that focuses on taking action and aims to change the way that clients behave (Blatterg and Scott, 1990). Its goal is to generate rapid outcomes that will enhance revenue in the short term and encourage repeat business. (Churchill and Peter, 1995), as it is a direct enticement that gives the sales team, distributors, or final customer an added benefit or incentive for the product, with the main goal of generating an immediate sale (Belch, 2003) In order to obtain the desired, acceptable responses from customers, marketers consciously make an effort to offer the proper information in the appropriate way (Zallocco and Kincaid, 2008).

Sales promotion guidelines published by The Advertising Standard Authority (ASA) are defined as: "Those marketing techniques used, usually briefly, to improve the allure of products and services to consumers by giving them a bonus advantage, whether it be monetary or in-kind ( Mercer, 2002). A sales promotion is an action that directly induces customers, salespeople, or resellers to purchase a product by offering them a benefit or an incentive. Brussel (1991) defines sales promotion as those marketing tactics outside of advertising that encourage consumer purchases, such as public relations, personal selling, and publicity. A thorough review of the literature revealed that numerous studies had looked into sales promotion in general and had discovered various aspects of it. Several more studies have concentrated on sales promotion in different fields, including knowledge sharing Perreault et al, 2006;Marketing strategies created within a strategic marketing framework Brassington and Pettitt, 2000; Economic and hedonistic circumstances Montaner, 2006; Intentional effort Zallocco et al., 2008; competitive retribution Joncos, 1990; buyer’s provocation Neslin, 2002. Promoting a product or service is a common strategy used by marketing experts to gain a competitive advantage, increase sales, and arouse consumer interest. Promotions influence the amount of merchandise a customer purchases and speed up the decision-making process.

  1. Research Methodology

In this paper, the study on sales promotion is analyzed using bibliometrics as the study methodology, in addition to R studio and VOS viewer. Usually, a bibliometric analysis is used to identify the publishing structure on a certain topic, assess the publication tendency within a particular field, and analyze the quantitative alterations in a certain research field. ("Lee and Hew, 2018; De Bakker et al., 2005"). For specialists and experts interested in assessing such scientific work, the findings of such analysis provide knowledge that is current, relevant, and useful (Duque Oliva et al., 2006). A Web of Science database was consulted to look for articles about Sales Promotion*. For paper searches, the search string Topic (TITLE-ABS-KEY) "Sales Promotion*" was used. For various studies, including abundance data, this database was chosen as a dataset. On July 27, 2022, in the initial results, 597 documents were returned when the aforementioned search query was used without any filters. However, a total of 337 papers were extracted and used for additional research after applying limits on subject areas that are related to business and management, in document type articles and review papers, and English as the language. The results retrieved were exported to BibTeX and plain text for the analysis of the most vital contributors, i.e., publications, authors, countries, institutions, co-authorship, source-citation network, and keyword occurrence network.

Review objectives

For the purpose of ensuring the effective operationalization of the primary research goals. The sub-objectives of the current study are as follows.

RQ1: Mapping the Bibliometric theme paper

  • Most relevant journal
  • Author with the most publications
  • Most productive institutions
  • Most productive countries

RQ2: Recognizing Relevant Research Studies

  • Citation Analysis
  • Country co-authorship Network
  • Co-citation Network
  • Source-Citation Network

RQ3: Identifying new and emerging ideas in the study area

  • Content Analysis


Search approach:  To find pertinent material, a search method was designed. This tactic was specifically designed for the Web of Science Database and the search string Topic (TITLE-ABS-KEY) and the "Sales Promotion*" search keyword. All searches included articles and review papers and covered the whole history of the database.

Identification, screening, and selection

Selection criteria: The search was limited to management and business as topic areas. 257 research publications in all were excluded. At this point, 340 records have been extracted.


 Quality evaluation: Only original articles and review papers served as the study's foundation. The next exclusion standard restricts papers to those published in English exclusively. Three items that were not in the English language were not included in the study.

The obtained results (337) were exported to BibTex and CSV Excel to examine the most important journals, authors, institutions, countries, and co-authorship, co-citation, source citation, and keyword occurrences.

 Data Analysis: The current paper used the evaluative bibliometric methods like descriptive and network analysis to obtain a broad overview of the subject. For bibliometric performance analysis, a variety of open-source programmes are available, including Rstudio and Vosviewer. The use of this specific library is justified by its capacity to manage bibliometric information from several repositories (Aria and Cuccurullo 2017).VOSviewer (1.6.18) has been used in the study for scientific mapping due to its wider adoption and interactive mapping features, including network, density, and overlay visualisations (Khanra et al. 2020; Liu et al. 2020; Prashar and Sunder 2020). The study used to identify key and emerging topics, co-occurrence network analysis, that contrasts commonalities between significant phrases. (AE and Golgeci 2019).Academics utilise co-occurrence networks to analyze the conceptual framework of literature on a certain topic (Zupic and Cater 2015).

4.1 Research design

The research method used bibliometric analysis with R studio and the VOS viewer. The research technique uses R studio and the VOS viewer for bibliometric analysis. In several areas, bibliometric analysis are frequently employed to aid in systematic literature reviews. This study's primary goal is to define the role of sales promotion and to give the aforementioned idea a theoretical framework. A bibliometric analysis method was chosen for this study because it is effective, reproducible, and scientifically reliable.























Results and findings                                                                       

5.1 Main Information

For the final study, 337 papers in total were collected. There were 1031 keywords submitted by 736 authors from 77 sources, as shown by Figure 1. The annual growth rate is 5.2%, where the average document age is 11.3 and the average citation per document is 36.54.

Figure 1: Main Information about Data


5.2 Performance Analysis

According to Cobo, Lopez-Herrera, Herrera-Viedma, and Herrera (2011) as well as Ramos-Rodrigue and Ruz-Navarro (2004), performance analysis looks at the contributions that research contributors make to a particular topic. The characteristic of bibliometric investigations is the descriptive analysis (Donthu, Reinartz, Kumar, & Pattnaik, 2020).

5.2.1 Most Relevant Journals

The top 10 productive journals in the subject of sales promotion, held by various publishers, have been identified by this study and are shown in Figure 2. Two of these prestigious journals are published by Elsevier, while two are published by Emerald. Publishers like Pubsonline, JSTOR, Sage Publication, and Wiley Online produce the remaining journals. Elsevier is the publisher leading with the journal with largest production is the "Journal of Business Research" which has 23 articles and is 6.824% of all articles published, making it the most active publication followed by the Emerald publication "Journal of Marketing Research" has 22 total publication and this stands at 6.528% for the journals.

Figure 2: Top Ten Relevant Journals


Source: Figure extracted using RStudio


5.2.2 Most Relevant Authors

The top ten most prolific authors are displayed in Figure 3. All 337 papers included in the study were authored by 736 authors. Moreover, the top 10 authors in the field of sales promotion according to this study were also recognized. The most prominent author is Burton Scot, with six papers. He is a distinguished marketing professor at the University of Arkansas, 2017–2020, and also coeditor-in-chief of the Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. His main areas of interest in study are challenges related to retail consumer promotion, public policy, and consumer well-being.

Figure3. The Top Ten Most Relevant Author

Source: Figure extracted using RStudio

The next most prolific authors with 5 papers each such as Swarup Dhar, Sachin Gupta, Peter Samuel Hendrik Leeflang, Koen Pauwels, Harald J. van Heerde. Swarup Dhar is a research student use data science and statistical modeling to study algorithmic fairness of Pennsylvania Additive Classification Tool used by the Department of Corrections. Worked with research advisors to publish findings Chess coaching, supervision and mentoring for children. Also helped manage the summer camp and increased brand image while working in the front desk. Academic in marketing science.Sachin Gupta, Professor of Management and Marketing at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York State holds the Henrietta Louis Johnson title. He also serves as editor-in-chief of the Journal of Marketing Research of the American Marketing Association. Peter Samuel Hendrik Leeflang (Schiedam, 1946) is a economist at the Dutch University of Groningen (RUG), he is an emeritus professor of business economics. The European Marketing Academy was founded by Leeflang and other individuals. His areas of interest in study include pharmaceutical marketing, new media, competition, and sales promotions. Koen Pauwels teaches and conducts research on return on marketing investment at Ozyegin University in Istanbul and the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth. The effectiveness of marketing online and in emerging markets are currently being studied, as well as the predictive potential of market dashboard measures. Harald J. van Heerde is a SHARP Research Professor of Marketing at UNSW in Sydney, Australia. Additionally, he has held editorial positions on the boards of the Journal of Marketing and the International Journal of Research in Marketing, and Marketing Science, as well as as an associate editor for both publications. His areas of interest in research include sales promotion, advertising, data analysis, marketing research, and marketing mix models.

Table 1: Top Most Relevant Authors


Number of Research Papers

Total number of Citations

Previous Year-start



Burton S






Dhar SK






Gupta S






Leeflang PSH






Pauwels K






Van Heerde HJ






Fildes R






Lichtenstein Dr






Netemeyer RG






Raju JS







Remaining have 4 papers each such as Professor Robert Fildes is focusing on the interpretation of data and application of user-generated content in the field of supply chain forecasting. He shares the role of Center for Marketing Analytics and Forecasting Director. Comparing the effectiveness of various forecasting techniques is the process of choosing a forecasting strategy and assessing it. Donald R. Lichtenstein is a professor of marketing. His main areas of interest in research include how consumers absorb information about prices and sales promotions.  He is presently a member of the editorial review boards for the Journal of Marketing and the Journal of Consumer Research.. Professor Netemeyer is the Professor of Free Enterprise at the McIntire School of Commerce. His main areas of interest in research are organisational and consumer behaviour, social and public policy concerns, maladaptive behaviours, and consumer attitudes and beliefs as they relate to a company's financial performance. He is currently looking into issues like financial literacy and quitting smoking. Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing Research, and other publications have published his research. Professor Jagmohan S. Raju is the director of the Wharton-Indian School of Business Program and former vice dean of executive education, currently holds this position. Prestigious academic journals like Management Science, the Journal of Retailing, and Marketing Science have published his research on pricing tactics, coupon programmes, managing private labels, and sales force compensation..

5.2.3 Most Relevant Institutions

This figure displays the top ten universities in terms of relevant institutions, which have the most publications on sales promotion. The leading institution is the University of Groningen, with 23 articles. Columbia University takes the second place with 11 articles, followed by the Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Tilburg University, University of Chicago, University of Granada, and the University of Texas with 10 articles each. University of California Berkeley, University Connecticut with 9 articles, and Dartmouth College with 8 articles.

Figure: 4 Top Most Ten Relevant Institutions

Source: Figure extracted using RStudio


5.2.4 Countries' Scientific Production

All of the research in this field has been conducted in eighteen different countries. The graph's darker blue colour corresponds to more articles from that particular country, and vice versa. Figure 5 demonstrates the 10 most productive nations with the highest research on the study.

Figure 5. Most Prolific Countries

Source: Map made using RStudio and data taken from the Web of Science database

In terms of publications on sales promotion, the U.S.A. dominates. The most articles of any country, 397, were published there. China is the second-most important nation, with 123 publications, followed by the Netherlands with 55 publications. The UK, Spain, South Korea, Germany, Australia, India, and France are the next leading countries with the highest published papers.

5.3 Science Mapping

Research constituent linkages are examined using science mapping (Baker, Kumar, & Pandey, 2021; Cobo et al., 2011; Ramos- Rodrigue & Ruz-Navarro, 2004). The analysis focuses on the structural relationships and cognitive connections between the various components of the research.Citation analysis, co-citation analysis, source-citation, and co-authorship analysis are only a few of the science mapping methodologies.

5.3.1 Citation Analysis

The most significant research publications, as determined by both local and global citations, are listed in the table. While local citation solely concentrates on citations inside a certain bibliometric dataset, global citation analysis places a strong emphasis on a research article's overall citations. The most significant research on sales promotion was done by Buil I (2013) and then by Lichtenstein Dr (1995). The most often cited article (Buil I, 2013) examines the results of monetary and non-monetary sales promotions. Lichtenstein Dr. (1995) assesses the simplest way to understand and present the deal proneness construct. Palazon-Vidal M. (2005) demonstrates that both financial and non-financial promotions can help build brand equity because of their beneficial effects on brand knowledge structures.

Table 2: Top 10 papers by Local Citations



Local Citations

Global Citations

Local Citations Ratio in percentage

Buil I





Lichtenstein Dr





Laroche M





Srinivasan S





Raghubir P





Palazon-Vidal M





Valette-Florence P





Liao Sl





Mela Cf





Leeflang Psh






Raghubir P. (2004) examines the Chandon, Wansink, and Laurent (CWL) model, the affective benefits of customer or "pull" promotions, as well as the educational consequences of sales promotions. Mela CF (1998) investigates the long-term effects of changes in promotional and advertising policies on market structure, and the findings imply that national brands are now more susceptible to the marketing strategies of retail brands due to the shifting of marketing spend from advertising to promotions. The framework offered by Leeflang Psh (2008) takes into account particular cross-category effects, and the results demonstrate that the impacts of promotion on sales in other areas are insignificant.

5.3.2 Country Co-Authorship Network

By examining the systematic co-authorship works among various countries, the researcher used the VOS viewer software with the aid of a co-authorship network to establish international country collaboration

Figure: 6 Country Co-authorship network

Source: Figure extracted using VOS viewer


Different countries are represented in the above figure by various frames, and the size of a frame corresponds to the quantity of articles in a country. A collaboration between the two nations has been depicted by a line. Each line's depth demonstrates the close collaboration and multiplicity of international alliances. Countries are selected on the basis of the minimum number of documents, which is 5. Out of 48 countries, only 17 meet the threshold

5.3.3 Co – Citation Network

Co-citation mapping is a science mapping technique that makes the assumption that works that are frequently referenced together have comparable themes (Hjrland, 2013). The method of keeping track of documents that are quoted in other papers together is known as co-citation analysis. According to Rossetto, Bernardes, Borini, and Gattaz (2018), the analysis has the potential to determine a particular field's conceptual framework, including any central idea (Liu, Yin, Liu, & Dunford, 2015). When two publications appear in the reference section of another article, they are linked in a co-citation network.

Figure: 7 Co-citation network

Source: Figure extracted using VOS viewer

Figure 7 displays a network diagram of author co-citations. This network's construction and analysis used default parameters. Only 85 authors out of 8738 satisfy the cutoff since they have the required minimum of 20 citations.

5.4.4 Source Citation Network

Figure 8 displays a network map of the sources cited. This network was created and its studies were conducted using default parameters. Only 19 out of 77 sources satisfy the requirement that a source must have at least 5 documents.

Figure 8: Source citation network

Source: Figure extracted using VOS viewer


5.4:Content Analysis

5.4.1Co-occurrences of keywords Network Analysis

To identify the phrases that have been used often in the various articles in this study, co-occurrence network of keyword is analysed. Co-Occurrence refers to the regularity with which a term appears alongside other keywords (Farukh et al.2020).The fundamental element is that keywords that are gathered into a single cluster are likely to reveal related subjectsresulting the references of Manesh et al.(2021) This study aids in determining the types of subjects and issues on which the scholars have mostly concentrated their efforts. The separation of distinct phrases on the map produced by the VOSviewer text-mining algorithm serves as a cue to the relatedness between the relevant keywords (Laudano et al., 2018).The stronger the relationship between a pair of phrases or more, the closer the gap between them appears to be. The co-occurrences in the articles were examined to ascertain how closely connected the terms were to one another (Van Eck et al., 2010).Following the completion of the data analysis pertaining to publications, citations, authors, nations, etc., a keyword analysis was done to better investigate this field. The use of the VOS viewer software simplified the Data visualization. The results of a keyword analysis on the VOS viewer program me are displayed in Figure 6.In all, 1692 keywords were used in the data collection. As usual, the counting approach was used to examine words with at least 5 occurrences, leading to the finalization of 111keywords for the study. Red, green, blue, yellow, purple, sky blue, orange color coding designates seven groups of terms from a related study that appear collectively in the outcome.

Figure 9. Keyword Network for Cluster Analysis

Source: Figure extracted using VOS viewer

The terms that have featured the most often signal that further study has been performed in these areas. A graph illustrating four keyword clusters.

Cluster 1 (38 terms with red nodes) laid emphasis upon antecedents, attitude, commitment, consumer behaviour, consumer perceptions, consumers, culture, customer satisfaction, discounts, experience, incentives, information, intention, intrinsic motivation, involvement, knowledge, loyalty, management, marketing communication, mediating role, monetary, perceived value, perceptions, personality, product, promotion, proneness, purchase intention, quality, responses, sales promotion, satisfaction, service quality, shopping behavior, technology, trust, uncertainty, word-of-mouth.

Cluster 2 (25 terms with green nodes) elaborates on advertising, brand choice, category, choice, competition, consumer, demand, determinants, empirical generalizations, empirical-analysis, expectations, framework, heterogeneity, long-term impact, model, price, price promotions, profitability, promotions, purchase quantity, repeat rates, sales, sales promotion bump, scanner data, segmentation.

Cluster 3 (17 items with blue nodes) evaluates children consumption, coupon, dimensions, equity, extensions, impact, innovation, market, models, performance, products, sales promotions, shareholder value, strategies, strategy, television.

Cluster 4 (12 items with yellow nodes) focuses on brand, brands, consequences, consumer response, consumer perceptions, corporate social responsibility, moderating role, price discounts, purchase, retailer, retailing, and store.

Cluster 5 (9 items with purple nodes) explains behavior, brand equity, coupons, deal proneness, online, perceived quality, perception, social media, and variety-seeking.

Cluster 6 (6 items with sky blue nodes) focuses on brand loyalty, consumer choice, decision, preference, price promotion, self

Cluster 7 (4 terms with orange nodes) elaborates on consumer behavior, deals, marketing, and pricing.



Table 3: The top 10 keywords commonly appeared.








Sales Promotion



Sales Promotions












Price Promotions






Brand Choice






The network of terms that have co-occurred most frequently with the keyword "Sales Promotion" is depicted in Figure 10. This map can offer a brief overview of the many approaches, subjects, and regions on which researchers have commonly concentrated in relation to sales promotion. For example, the co-occurrence of the phrases "price discount" and "sales promotion" indicates that several studies about the effect of price discounts in sales promotions have been conducted. Furthermore, the occurrence of the keywords "consumer perception" and "sales promotion" suggests that what consumers perceive about the sales promotion

Discussion and Conclusion

The Web of Science database was used in this investigation for the bibliometrics examination of the Sales Promotion. The five main goals of the current study are to discuss the most pertinent journals; the authors with the most publications, the most productive nations and institutions; analyze the co-authorship and co-citation networks; source citation analysis; and conduct network analyses of keyword co-occurrences using the Web of Science database, VOS viewer, and Rstudio software. The journal with the most papers published on this subject is "Journal of Business Research," which is published by Elsevier and contains 23 publications. The authors who are most pertinent are Burton S. Most of the papers have been submitted by authors from the United States of America. In the submission of 337 papers, the United States became the most productive country. The institution with the most authors is the University of Groningen, which has 23 submissions. Additionally, a keyword co-occurrence network study showed that the terms "impact," "sales promotion," and "models" are used the most frequently.

The current research has some limitations, much like all other investigations. The study's first limitation is that information about this research project is only taken from the Web of Science database; several databases, such as Scopus and Google Search, are not taken into account. Second, papers authored in other languages were not included in this analysis; only those articles that were found to be written in English were considered. Thirdly, the study focuses on the topics of business and management, as well as articles and review papers from the document type. It is recommended that future researchers use any other database to carry out the relevant investigation. Additionally, this study identified the authors who made the biggest contributions by counting publications and citations. However, more advanced approaches, including page rank analysis or a number of other network matrices, may be helpful in similar future studies.


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