Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.396
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Mind Mapping – A Critical Gizmo for Corporate Change

Prof. Dr. Satya Subrahmanyam

Professor & Director

Department of Accounting

Catholic University in Erbil

Erbil, Kurdistan

CARME-Centre for Applied Research in

 Management and Economics

Polytechnic of Leiria, Portugal

 

Karwan Sherwani

Head, Department of Business & Management

Tishk International University

Erbil, Kurdistan

 

Prof. Neuza Manuel Pereira Ribeiro

CARME-Centre for Applied Research in

Management and Economics

Polytechnic of Leiria, Portugal

 

Abstract  

Mind mapping is hardly ever considered as an assisting device for a corporate change besides being existed for a substantial time in the corporate world. Through this underutilized exchange tool, the ubiquitous endeavour of corporate change to run inconsistency on a better constant base. This research discovers approached corporate leaders regarding their sophisticated mind mapping use or their corporate journey along with entreated their contribution to making usage of mind mapping for business alternating initiatives. Corporate leaders that reported the use of mind mapping adeptly commented that they used it normally for verbalized exchange as well as collaboration and also difficulty and also structures preparing and also style. Particular techniques like blanketed training, clarifying objectives, assessing and watching on jobs, assessing courses discovered, revamping the educational program, correcting sources, establishing targets, assumptions and needs as well as establishing timelines. At the superior set, state of minds, behaviours and also sensations towards change option mostly based upon the task somebody performs, corporate leaders can advantage from the efforts by a method of truly valuing their function and understanding as well as including them in the complete treatment, from preparing to apply. It is widely accepted that exchange is critical to bring any change in the corporate world irrespective of a particular device is utilized; nevertheless, the significance of picking an applicable technique/s grounded entirely on the scenario, communication and receivers is important. Making use of mind mapping as a device for corporate change especially created for certain components is fairly recommended, as it accredits for the waft of interaction.

Keywords: Mind Mapping, Corporate Change, Corporate Leader, Communication, Global Competition.

 

Introduction

Corporate change is a challenging task. Change can be as a result of a modification in technique, the intro of brand-new advancement, a merging, or due to relocations of a business player to mention some (Fishman, 1997). Corporate change has shown its consistency throughout the last century in the corporate world; the effect of a change initiative has the power to surpass each division, business, trouble and also utmost necessary point, despite the regular approach. However, there are certain corporates that induce considerable change and appear to be highly successful. Regardless of the nature or magnitude of the change, corporate leaders who want to make a change will get insights from this research of how corporate leaders addressed substantial change (Subrahmanyam, 2017).

Background

Great deals of modification designs have as well as exist supplied corporate leaders’ pretty criteria, frameworks, methods as well as dynamic choices for efficient change, however, lots of alternating efforts stop working. A few of the challenges usually existing are undesirable interaction, absence of understanding, not standing for information, failings, successes as well as problems. Neither appropriate methods of selection nor various non-suitable options, but stressful implementation is the intent for most change projects quit working (Miller, 2002).   He brought that effective implementation of modification rests upon the employees being prepared, most likely as well as in a placement to adjust to the new need.

Disputes are favourable and routinely challenging continuous relationships that are important to the business (Bush & Folger, 2005). According to them, browsing at hostilities as a need enhances the viewpoint of social association. For Tjosvold (1998) disputes are comfortable and inescapable, to operate a business in a competitive environment and to be benefited collaborations.   Taking a proactive method to dispute by providing it factor to consider in all components of a change effort provides a business with a number of chances for enhancement. The existence and outstanding administration of hostilities are not merely crucial to the development, change and advancement of business, nevertheless, essential defence towards stagnancy, detachment, entropy and ultimate termination (Ruben, 1978).

Several scholars would suggest that people are one of the most important sources in business as well as are necessary chauffeurs for change. However, individuals provide feelings, personality, perspectives as well as greater than a couple of concerns to the table in any type of business. When change is called for thru no selection of his/her own, currently not anyone has the desire to quickly end up being a supporter for change. Employees had worries about their jobs or the continuation of the organization, at the same time making two kinds of dispute, work environment and also connection (Cloke& Goldsmith 2003). Employees commonly accept to change when they do not lose anything from the existing one (Holden, 2007).

Statement of the Problem

The principal objective of this research is to focus on the areas that lower the chances of failure of change initiatives.  Corporate change is tiring as well as hard and generally having stumpy achievement regularity (Kotter, 1996). When the corporates are at transformative phase, for Tager(2004), management needs time to set out as well as totally formulate the guidelines to initiate corporate functions, as perfectly as the new expectations and corporate leaders, call for to prefer the reflective procedure that subordinates should experience to jump on board. Utilizing mind mapping has the possible to allow alternative online marketers to end up being conscious of issues as well as sight possibilities ahead of time at the very same time. The growth as well as usage of mind maps in the past, throughout of and also after an alternating effort, can potentially create a possibility to lower the responsive behaviour. Mind mapping can proactively deal with the estimated barricades to eliminating as well as conversation belonging to the change treatment prohibiting an excoriated increased financial commitments or added employees.

In the process of striving for corporate change, regular interaction is an impediment. In lie with the understandings of Friedman (2008), consistent and trustworthy interactions and open communication develop solid partnerships which help in avoiding misconceptions and bridge the unwarranted gaps of the change process. This research suggests making use of mind mapping to proactively resolve difficulties leaders deal with when functioning to effectively executive and maintain corporate change. When a corporate launches for a change, it may look for significant data about assistance and also understanding, clear as well as open interaction, accepting and also planning for unpreventable troubles.

Purpose of the Study

The intention of this research is to inspect the mindsets of corporate leaders accountable for corporate change and their disposition to think of making use of believing to map as an impartial alternate mechanism or in combination with any other corporate change mannequin or technique. Corporate change is necessary for sustainable attainment of any business.  When and also exactly how to seek change has really long been a bitter pill business of all sizes have actually discovered tough to ingest. Any device certainly ends up being a vital part in preparing, creating and imposing corporate change, through its usage has the imaginable to increase the pace of success rate of change, enhance communication exchange and greater handle dispute.

The Significance of the Study

Corporates that can't compete because of techniques, creation, team individuals, synchronisations, advancement or various points of views will certainly in no way, shape or form withstanding accomplishment without change (Kotter, 1996).  Tragically, the literature on the successful execution of corporate change shows a waged uninspiring. Any tool, method, device or activity sustained by research kept up by check out that has the chance of altering this simple study, deserves more investigation. Corporate pioneers perceive correspondence as one of the most all the time distinguished hindrances previously, during notwithstanding after the corporate change (Friedman, 2008).

Conceptual and Operational Definitions

Mind Mapping - A conceptual strategy that instigates with a homepage and is a centralized model, determined by 1 or 2 key phrases in each branch (Sibbet, 2002).

Corporate Change - Transformation of structure, high quality or process over a period of time in the corporate (Van de Ven & Poole, 1995).

Literature Review

The subsequent literature examines the frustrating unsuccessful attempts of corporate change and the demand that corporate leaders consider the use of alternative methods to maximize the impact of depressing statistics on effective change. Change generally generates the basis of every conflict of change (Kotter, 2007). Traditionally, meager results of efforts to integrate and significantly change the need for corporate change and resistance to participation (Aiken & Keller, 2009; Franken, Edwards & Lambert, 2009).

Several factors for sustainable change include innovation, global competition and change of standards and lifestyles (Holder, 2002). Change is similarly fast and intricate and includes clear communication, dedication and possession throughout the entire corporate (Miller, 2002), with the ability to take advantage of past gaffes (Smith, 2013). Regardless of the business, each corporate is different, however, each has two essentials that are constantly delivered. The demands of individuals and reliable communication (Campbell, 2006)are not too far off.

Unfortunately, unconfined interaction or deficiency of fruitful communiqué provides a base for conflict, harming the changing environment. Individuals require the communication factor in addition to the reason why it tends to fail, as well as the strategy, style and execution of the change; a harmony must exist in both.

Using mind mapping as an approach to visual communication creates a viable and sustainable atmosphere for change (Arlbjorn, 2011). Mind mapping, in some corporates, is swapped traditional devices and tape-based communication (Margulies, 2002), but their use in the process of corporate change has been limited. This research focuses on analyzing the readiness of corporate leaders to think about using mind mapping as an independent tool for change or in combination with another technique or change approach.

Corporate Change

Senge (1999)notes that the definition of the impact of corporate change usually has conflicting meanings and may have problems within and/or outside the corporate. If it is possible that a corporate will be competitive and growing, the need for change should be one of the starting points of the corporate policies. Given the poor success rates of such contracts, corporates will have to find a mechanism by which they can increase their ability to change. According to Karp (2004), success depends on the change in the employees of the corporate and recommends increasing the commitment of them to the job to achieve the set objective.

Leaders' intervention is regularly required to keep abreast of external adjustments (Trompenaars &Woolliams, 2003). However, leading the change from top to bottom is not a requirement, although the need for change must also be a permanent consideration and for some corporates and for others extra-regular (Reich, 2000). Among the main change management designs, corporates often execute the Kotter change design, which for a corporate to promote the probability of success, follows eight steps in order (Kotter, 1996). Corporates are not alien to globalization and along with technology are also two catalysts that have really fostered the competition that exists today for any type of corporate dimension. Scholars, experienced corporate leaders, as well as business professionals from every imaginable industry, have struggled to achieve lasting change in their business.  Unfortunately, most do not succeed (Feeley &Kathenes, 2007).

Corporate Leaders Attitude towards Change

Wharton and Roi (2002), calculating readiness to demonstrate demand for awareness, listening to the preparation and engaging with change, both internal and external environment of the corporate. Cloke and Goldsmith (2003)recognize that, if properly treated, the problem can develop a path to better understanding, ultimately leading to productive communication, collaborative partnerships and connections.

It is important for corporate leaders to overcome the transformational resistance they experience and the transformation of their recipients to create interesting forces (Kotter, 1996). Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for corporate leaders to refuse to modify their actions, deny requirements placed on followers (Kotter, 1996)and justify practices behind the appearance of experience. To increase the chances of successful change, corporate leaders must personally adapt to change and have passionate ideas about the potential for success (Miller, 2002). According to Miller, adapting to change is an additional challenge for leaders as there are recognized requirements for designing stability under obstacle stress. Corporate leaders must develop the ability to manage change reliably and the unpredictability and complexity of the corporates, as well as the capabilities of workers (Callan, Latemore& Paulsen, 2004).

Communicating Change

Communication between management and workers is a technique commonly used to reduce the uncertainty during change (Lewis & Seibold, 1998). Communication in which employees have the opportunity to obtain details directly related to the change process and expected end results develop an environment in which employees are able to participate in the decision-making process, resulting in better recognition, sense of understanding and control(Ashford & Black, 1996).

An effective communication strategy is elusive but definitely essential for corporate change. There are approaches of two ongoing interactions within the corporation, as well as numerous social networks of partnerships. Gonzales (2006)identified two activities that affect specific goals - to help and to intervene. Typical methods by which all interactions occur in a corporate are not always the best way to deal with change(Di Fonzo & Bordia, 1998).  The simple interaction of vision for change, as well as its causes, develops well-informed and motivated partners in the decision-making process. A collective initiative aimed at creating a truly positive outlook, though limited, can be countered by positive change (Gonzales, 2006).

Mind Mapping

Even though the concepts mind mapping and human learning were traced back in the 1950s, but the pioneering research by Allan Collins and Ross Quillian was not completed until a decade later (Rosenbaum, 2004).  While there are many meanings for mind mapping, most explain the creation and / or function of the mind map, which begins with an important concept or script in the middle of the diagram, but also the radial link, validation, associations, links or concepts, web links between people and departments (Callan et al., 2004). Mind mapping is also described as a tool for strategy, structure and testing ideas or concepts while continuing to focus on the underlying problem (Pollitt, 2003).

Although mind mapping has indeed existed since the late 1970s, it has recently appeared to be much higher. Due to the need to focus on business with ads, websites, video clips as well as printed content, there are full of privileges. Mind mapping, in particular, allows to transitioning away from advanced technology for a short time. Even mind mapping in software is not only different but also more attractive and interesting than listening to boring lectures or reading slides through a PowerPoint speaker in the target market. In the 21st century, human life is focused on electronics, and a return to basics can be a great place to attract new employees. The ease of mind mapping, whether hand-crafted or software used (Rosenbaum, 2004), appears to be an attractive feature of this method, which provides time for reflection and presentation, which also leads to decisive decision-making and an honest look and behaviour that needs attention.

Mind mapping has practically many uses in almost every situation, including personal or professional preparation. Improve interaction by defining clear goals, presenting links between people, services and processes, diagnosing problems and threats in situations and groups, resolving problems, choosing production (Eppler & Burkhard, 2007; Haudan, 2008). An additional factor that researchers support this aesthetic strategy is that mind mapping can create many suggestions and dynamically translate them into visual techniques across language barriers through the use of images. Mind mapping leads to questions about estimation as well as standard perspectives and raises creative debates(Buzan, 1996; Margulies, 2002).

Methodology

The rigour of this research was to examine the mindsets of those responsible for this change and to make it easier and/or more successful using mind mapping along with experience, orientation and reason. Data were collected using the electronic survey process to support change and mind mapping as a tool to support change initiatives.

The data was obtained from people who showed interest in mind mapping and corporate change. This research provides details that can analyze and recognize attitudes, as well as readiness for changes in the corporate both experience of professionals and those who are accustomed to creating mind maps. Such information will undoubtedly help to establish an interest in considering different approaches to developing, interacting, and implementing changes that will help corporate's presence.

For this research, an exploratory research style was used, which collects practical data from non-probability examples using network sampling methods. Shields and Tajalli (2006) classified exploratory research or preliminary studies, which they recognized as a micro-concept structure, working theory, suggesting that the concept remains in its early stage. According to Dewey (1938), the working theory is a transient method of pursuing studies as well as finding additional complex information. In this research, the working principle is that mind mapping can be an effective technique to connect and implement effective change.

 

 

Target Population

The target group for this research is people who have experience of corporate change and who are also interested in mapping. The population was acquired through 2 sources of the website, a LinkedIn connection, as well as group members and Facebook pages that represent corporations, businesses, organizations, as well as communities.  Participants were invited to participate in the study using LinkedIn and Facebook accounts, selecting individuals and team members or a corporate that would show interest in corporate change and mind mapping.

Data Collection

The information for this research was collected entirely using a virtual process with Survey Monkey. Survey Monkey is an online interactive survey solution with which the customer can conduct an individual survey as well as collect and evaluate data (http://www.surveymonkey.com). The research was designed so that the reactions of each participant were completely anonymous. The data collected was used solely for research purposes in connection with this article and was removed from the Survey Monkey website at the end of the research to maintain some level of confidentiality.

Eligible individuals completed an electronic survey directly related to the purpose of this research, such as the Mind Mapping and Change Questionnaire. The survey included a brief description and interpretation of Mind Mapping with a specific example covering past and actual uses, and several flexible inquiries about corporate changes and the actual application of Mind Mapping to the process of qualitative research.

Data Analysis

Conducted a content analysis process on responses to adaptive concerns, as defined by Creswell (2009). Part of the participants who regularly use Mind Mapping; Either by month (17%) as well as from day to day or regularly (14%) is somewhat hilarious, the best part (41%) have never used it or is unsure of its benefits, capabilities or value. The way individuals use mind mapping is mainly personal.

Summary of Demographic Information

The target group was a LinkedIn group of people who showed great interest in mind mapping and corporate change. Change leaders or the people responsible for change have been asked to use age. Change leaders were asked only about the major markets in which they operate and their years of experience in change management.

Corporates Represented

The markets created by more than 5% of individuals are shown in Figure 1. Other markets include aerospace, architecture, phone call centres, personal development and concept development, construction, energy technology design, consumer electronics, finance, manufacturing by the government and nonprofit fields. The ages of all the people are shown in Figure 2 and the years of experience of the corporate leaders are shown in Figure 3.

 

Figure 1: Corporates Represented

Figure 2: Age Ranges Represented

 

 

 

 

Figure 3: Experience of Corporate Leaders

 

Mind Mapping Responses

While the percentage of people who regularly use Mind Mapping; Either month by month (17%) and every day or week (14%) is more inspiring, an even higher proportion (41%) have not used it in any other way or would have doubted its advantages, skills or value.The method by which people implement mind mapping is primarily personal. The list below will certainly reveal that various methods that Mind Mapping uses in both a specific and professional context (Figure 5).

Figure 4: Usage Frequency

Figure 5: Personal and Professional Usage

Personal Usage

Respondents showed that mind mapping used it primarily in private situations. In general, participants shared diverse, provocative and imaginative techniques for performing mind mapping, although there are various personal uses and additional routines than others.

 

Figure 6: Personal Usage

Several respondents have used mind mapping to prepare concepts before the activity, or more specifically as mentioned by a participant: “It helps me accumulate ideas and organize problems.” The configuration of specific functions, the self-assessment, the implementation and the concentration in the responsibilities were really typical responses, with comments like “prepare my day”, “to get an overview of the possible ramifications selections”, “to determine the core values as well as private tenacity” and “to help change life.”

Mind mapping can be used for everything that is true and has continued to adhere to a selection of participants in this research. Some of the additional unique statements that are absolutely based on the implications of the study and the previous research study included: “I use it to develop practical circumstances to deal with conflicts in partnerships”, “to deal with some parenting problems”“describe friends” and also “to help me with the readability of the proposal and also with the execution of the activity.” Buried marriage for non-public purposes as well as the preparation of family members, the variables for changing the tasks to be taken into account, the personal financing business and the preparation for retirement.

Professional Usage

Individuals began to exchange communication and set up and design the system, but used Mind Mapping appropriately. Specific statements on communication "I collect information from large team meetings as individuals and use them to reflect and discuss with non-existent people" and "multiple factors and interpersonal vehicles." Mind Mapping in the Electronic Context is based on the key work and the latest initiatives and team objectives when defining comments and creating documents or repair option. “Make sure they provide the elements to achieve that goal.” "Changing strategies will ultimately make them useful and environmentally friendly. This is an important professional goal."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 7: Professional Usage

Findings

Change, for any given situation or abundance of variables, is beneficial or undesirable is something that everyone has to deal with. The success or failure of a corporate change ultimately depends on the practices and state of mind of the individual. The problem addressed by this research is the failing part of corporate change, mind mapping in the change process for the entrepreneur to evaluate the change a preparation for success and what can be done and used.

Finding One: People Know Change is Inevitable

This research showed that individuals do not wait for organizational change, but understand that taking responsibility usually has to contribute to its success. If the corporate spends most of its profit, time and cash on identifying more staff members, do so during action validation and special appraise. Generally withholding or exposure does not achieve the desired result or does not involve good staff members (Efron, 2013). According to Mellor (2014), personality and consistency are needed to eliminate the confrontation of traditional problem services and develop a convenient, interesting and effective office fee culture.

Finding Two: Attitudes, behaviours and feelings in the direction of change vary

Among the problems identified in this research, there was a difference between corporate leaders who had lost control or tasks and the decision made. Corporate leaders must value the particularity of employees to the extent that they are more or less prepared for change, including the most active. The modification of the actions in preparation as well as in the execution system, starting with the recipients of the modifications, can provide important information. In this research, there is a clear distinction between the state of mind and the line you make, doing so mainly on the basis of research based on the approach of Renesch (2007)and Turner(2009), who have noticed that the leaders who set high quality under in a group environment, they understand the real alternative requirement coming from the recipients since they are the main executors.

Finding Three: Communication is essential for any change procedure regardless of what specific tool is used.

According to individuals, the source of these obstacles is mainly a kind of communication. Each corporate is different from the industry in which it operates, but each always has two aspects, personality and requirements for effective communication (Creswell, 2009). No one is running away. Unfortunately, unimpeded or lack of effective communication develops a system for controversy and pollutes the changing atmosphere. This organization allows recipients of all opening style changes to hearing, see, collect, understand, and welcome information, as well as use some methods of interaction(Kalies, 2006).

Finding Four: Using Mind Mapping with change is underutilized.

There is a disconnect between people who regularly use Mind Mapping directly and those who understand it can be an efficient professional tool. Mind mapping is not used because it is generally not used for change. Causes include lack of experience or knowledge about the tool and the many ways it can be used. All corporate leaders agreed that modification is difficult and suggested that many people who are familiar with Mind Mapping definitely want to think or change the way they see specific aspects of thinking change.

Closing Comments

Mind mapping and corporate change, will this mix solve the agony bordering corporate change? However, it is most likely to be effective to take into account the value of mind mapping combined with change actions, along with examining the preparation of corporate leaders to consider change more carefully. Given the serious value of choosing the right interaction techniques, thinking about the information recipient, the value of effective corporate change and the limitations it poses is also a difficult struggle, although dedication and personal change, the process is inevitable.

Conflict of Interest

The authors confirm that there is no conflict of interest to declare for this publication.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Research Center of Catholic University in Erbil. I thank Dr. Riadh Francis, President &Vice Chancellor of Catholic University who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research, although they may not agree with all of the interpretations/conclusions of this paper.

Nobody has been more important to me in the pursuit of this project than the members of my family. I would like to thank my parents; whose love and guidance are with me in whatever I pursue. They are the ultimate role models. Most importantly, I wish to thank my loving and supportive wife, Ms. Kumari, and my only wonderful daughter, Ms. Gnana   Satya   Sri, who provide unending inspiration.

References

  • Aiken C & Keller S (2009). The irrational side of change management. McKinsey Quarterly, 2, 100-109.
  • Arlbjorn J S (2011). Process optimization with simple means: The power of visualization. Industrial and Commercial Training, 43(3), 151-159. doi:10.1108/00197851111123604
  • Ashford S J & Black J S (1996). Proactivity during organizational entry: The role of desire for control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(2), 199-214. doi.org/10.1037/0021- 9010.81.2.199
  • Bush R A & Folger J P (2005). The promise of mediation: The transformative approach to conflict. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Buzan T (1996). The mind map book. New York, NY: Plume Penguin Group.
  • Callan V J Latemore G & Paulsen N (2004). The best-laid plans: Uncertainty, complexity and large-scale organisational change. Mt Eliza Business Review, 7(1), 10-17.
  • Campbell N (2006). Communicating visually: Incorporating document design in writing tasks. Business Communication Quarterly, 69(4), 399-403.
  • Cloke K & Goldsmith J (2003). The art of waking people up: Cultivating awareness and authenticity at work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass/Wiley.
  • Creswell J W (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Dewey J (1938). Logic: The theory of inquiry. New York, NY: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.
  • Di Fonzo N & Bordia P (1998). A tale of two corporations: Managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resource Management, 37(3-4), 295-303.
  • Efron L (2013). Three reasons your best employees don’t feel recognized. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/louisefron/2013/08/12/three-reasons-yourbest-employees-dont-feel-recognized/
  • Eppler M J & Burkhard R A (2007). Visual representations in knowledge management: Framework and cases. Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(4), 112-122. doi:10.1108/13673270710762756
  • Feeley M &Kathenes B (2007). Words from the wise. Successful Meetings, 56(1), 56.
  • Fishman C (1997). Change: Few can do it. Few can sustain it. Few can survive it. Fast Company, 8.
  • Franken A Edwards C & Lambert R (2009). Executing strategic change: Understanding the critical management elements that lead to success. California Management Review, 51(3), 49-73.
  • Friedman D (2008). Tips for outsourcing success. In E. Biech (Ed.), ASTD handbook for workplace learning professionals, (pp. 746-747). Baltimore, MD: United Book Press.
  • Gonzales M R D (2006). The facilitation and hindrance of employee receptivity to large-scale organizational change in healthcare organizations. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (UMI No. 3290487)
  • Haudan J A (2008). The art of engagement. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Holden D (2007). The missing ingredient in organizational change. Industrial Management, 49(3), 8-13.
  • Holder B J (2002). Re: Executive development: The personal aspect of organizational change. The ceo refresher. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.refresher.com/ Archives/!holder2.html
  • Kalies B (2006). Re: Leadership and real change. The ceo refresher. [Web log post] Retrieved from http://www.refresher.com/archives/!Bykreal.html
  • Karp T (2004). Learning the steps of the dance of change: Improving change capabilities by integrating futures studies and positive organisational scholarship. Journal of Future Studies, Strategic Thinking and Policy. 6(6), 349-355.
  • Kotter J P (1996). Leading change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
  • Kotter J P (2007). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.
  • Lewis L K & Seibold D R (1998). Reconceptualizing organizational change implementation as a communication problem: A review of literature and research agenda. In M. E. Roloff (Ed.), Communication Yearbook, 21. (pp. 93-151). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Margulies S (2002). Mapping inner space: Learning and teaching mind mapping. Tucson, AZ:Zepher
  • Mellor N (2014). Character first education. Retrieved from http://characterfirsteducation.com/c/about.php
  • Miller D (2002). Successful Change Leaders: What makes them? What do they do that is different? Journal of Change Management, 2(4), 359-368. Retrieved from http://dx.doi. org/10.1080/714042515
  • Pollitt D (2003). Mind mapping your way to a better career. Career Development International, 8(5), 253-256.
  • Reich R R (2000). The change insurgent. Fast Company.
  • Renesch J (2007b, December 18). Re: Appreciating context: The secret to lasting change (part II). The CEO Refresher. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.refresher.com/ appreciating-context-the-secret-to-lasting-change-part-II/
  • Rosenbaum A (2004). Mind mapping: A tool for managing the organizational transition. Information Strategy: The Executives Journal, 120(2), 32-39.
  • Ruben B D (1978). Communication and conflict: A system-theoretic perspective. The Quarterly Journal of Speech, 64, 695-715.
  • Senge P M (1999). Dance of change. Executive Excellence, 16(10), 7.
  • Shields P &Tajalli H (2006). Intermediate theory: The missing link in successful student scholarship. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 12(3), 313-334. Retrieved from http:// ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/39/
  • Sibbet D (2002). Principles of facilitation: The purpose and potential of leading group processes. San Francisco, CA: The Grove Consultants International.
  • Smith M K (2013). Chris Argyris: Theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved from http://infed.org/mobi/ chris-Argyris-theories-of-action-double-loop-learning-and-organizational-learning/
  • Subrahmanyam S (2017). Corporate Leadership: A Study of the Corporate Change Skills in Growing in the Corporate World. International Journal of Research Culture Society, 1(10), 152-162.
  • Tager M J (2004). What people really need from a change leader? Leader to Leader, Winter 2004(31), 6-9. doi:10.1002/ltl.56
  • Tjosvold D (1998). Cooperative and competitive goal approach to conflict: Accomplishments and challenges. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 47(3), 285-342. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.1998.tb00025.x
  • Trompenaars F &Woolliams P (2003). A new framework for managing change across cultures. Journal of Change Management, 3(4), 361-375.
  • Turner D M (2009, March 18). Re: Resistance to organizational change: Fact or fiction? The CEO Refresher. [Web log post]. Retrieved from Retrieved from http://www.refresher.com/ resistance-to-organizational-change-fact-or-fiction/
  • Van de Ven A H & Poole M S (1995). Explaining development and change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 510–540.
  • Wharton L E & Roi R (2002). Re: New thoughts on strategy and change initiative implementation: Emergence, readiness and adaptability. The CEO Refresher. [Web log post] Retrieved from http://www.refresher.com/Archives/!lewinitiative.html