Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.603
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
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Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Emotional Labour and Emotional Burnout: A Research on Teachers and Bankers

 

 

Meral Erdirençelebi

University of Necmettin Erbakan,

Faculty of Applied Sciences,

Department of Finance and Banking,

DereAsıklarMh. Demec Sk. Campus of Köyceğiz, Meram/Konya, Turkey.

Email:merdirencelebi@erbakan.edu.tr

 

Ayşen Yıldız

University of Necmettin Erbakan,

Institute of Social Sciences,

Department of Banking and Insurance,

Meram/Konya, Turkey.

Email: ayseen.yildiz@gmail.com

 

Ebru Ertürk

University of Necmettin Erbakan,

Faculty of Applied Sciences,

Department of Management Information Systems, DereAsıklarMh. Demec Sk. Campus of Köyceğiz, Meram/Konya, Turkey.

Email:ebruerturk@erbakan.edu.tr

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to reveal the effects of emotional intelligence levels and emotional labour levels of teachers and bank employees in the service sector on their emotional burnout levels. The research sample consisted of 509 teachers working in primary and secondary schools operating in two central districts (Meram and Selçuklu) affiliated to the Provincial Directorate of National Education in the province of Konya in Turkey, and 391 bank employees in these districts. Data were collected by simple random sampling using the questionnaire technique of the quantitative research method. Within the scope of the research, the effects of emotional intelligence and emotional labour scales on emotional burnout were examined with regression analysis. It has been determined that the sub-dimensions of Emotional intelligence have a positive effect on Emotional labour, and the sub-dimensions of Emotional intelligence have a negative effect on Emotional burnout, and the sub-dimensions of Emotional labour have a positive effect on Emotional burnout. According to the results of the Structural Equation Model, it was concluded that emotional intelligence has an effect on emotional burnout through emotional labour. According to the results of the Mann Whitney U test, it was concluded that the emotional intelligence levels of the teachers were higher than those of the bank employees. In addition, it was determined that the emotional burnout levels of bank employees were higher than teachers.

Keywords: Emotional Labour; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional Burnout

 

 

 

Introduction

It is very difficult to define the subject of emotions, which has an important place in people's lives, in a conceptual sense. It is seen that people start to observe and experience their emotions after they are born. This emotion management process continues throughout their lives. As a matter of fact, people's desire to control their emotions is explained as an effort they show. As a result of this effort, the concept of emotional labour has emerged. This concept is associated with emotion management, which means managing emotions. The better the emotion management is ensured by the individuals, the more positively the working life is affected.

Employees in the service sector interact much more closely with customers. In order to increase the success of this interaction, employees are expected to use their emotional intelligence as well as their emotional labour in business processes. Emotional intelligence is defined as a person's ability to be aware of his/her own emotions, to perceive the emotions of others (to empathize), and to manage data with emotional clues. The emotional intelligence of an individual in the control of emotions affects individual performance. It is known that people with high emotional intelligence have a higher level of awareness and control over their own emotions, as well as manage stress correctly.

Employees who do not try to use their emotional intelligence in business life or are not even aware of it may experience burnout because they cannot cope with the stress in the work environment. Burnout usually occurs emotionally, cognitively and behaviourally. This burnout may arise from individual reasons as well as from the organizational environment. The concept of emotional burnout is expressed as the beginning of exhaustion. Emotional burnout explains the negativity that occurs in the emotions of the person due to his/her experiences. Emotional exhaustion is also central to other stages of burnout. For this reason, both the work and family life of the person are negatively affected by this situation. Recently, different ways of reducing the burnout levels experienced by service sector employees operating in an intensely competitive environment have been investigated.

The fact that the work of service sector employees is very stressful and requires dedication can negatively affect their performance. As a requirement of competition, enterprises look for the ways to increase their efficiency and productivity levels. Recently, it has been frequently investigated whether emotional intelligence and emotional labour have an effect on reducing or vice versa, increasing burnout. From this point of view, the main objective of the study was to reveal the effects of emotional intelligence levels and emotional labour levels of teachers and bank employees in the service sector on their emotional burnout levels.

  1. Literature Review

1.1  Emotional intelligence

In the literature, Sternberg is accepted as the pioneer in the development of the concept. Sternberg argued that people with higher IQs are more successful academically, but that this alone is not enough in other fields. It was included in the title of a doctoral thesis for the first time in the USA in 1985 and in an article by psychologists Salovey and John Mayer in 1990 (Maboçoğlu, 2006, p. 42). Salovey and Mayer (1990) define emotional intelligence as a sub-form of social intelligence, which is related to the ability of an individual to understand his/her own and others' emotions and to distinguish between them and to use the knowledge obtained from this process in his/her thoughts and behaviours. Daniel Goleman (1995), on the other hand, emphasizes in his book that emotional intelligence is quite important in contrast to the known intelligence and states that emotional intelligence plays a determining role in many relationships. In this respect, the concept of emotional intelligence is no longer just a subject of the academic field and has shown its effect in all social life.

Emotional intelligence is explained by many models pioneered by Goleman. The main emotions in these models are based on the ability to be managed in a process. Goleman's emotional intelligence model consists of self-consciousness, self-management (control), motivation, empathy and social ability (Somuncuoğlu, 2005, p. 275). “Self-consciousness means having detailed information about one's emotions, strengths and limits, values and impulses” (Tuyan & Beceren, 2004, p. 39). Self-management is defined as “the individual's use of his/her emotions in a way that facilitates, not complicates, and acts in a way that does not cause any conscientious discomfort towards himself/herself and those around him/her” (Çolakoğlu & Örnek, 2016, p. 608). Motivation is defined as “encouragement, incentive” (TDK, 2020). The concept, which is expressed as empathy or social consciousness, is considered as the ability to put oneself in the place of another in its simplest definition. It is known that it means experiencing the emotion that someone else feels at that moment, instead of just considering oneself as the ability to put oneself in someone else's place (Ersoy & Köşger, 2016, p. 9). The concept of social ability, on the other hand, constitutes the sum of the concepts of self-consciousness, self-management, motivation and empathy. All efforts to solve a problem determine social ability. The concept of social ability is based on understanding people's emotions and using the skill in that direction (Yurdakavuştu, 2012, p. 38).

Within the scope of this research, Emotional Intelligence Scale (Emotional Intelligence Scale), which was developed by Schutte et al. in 1998, based on the emotional intelligence model of Mayer and Salovey and also theoretically based on this model, was used as an emotional intelligence scale. This scale includes 3 sub-dimensions: “Optimism/Mood Regulation”, “Utilization of Emotions” and “Appraisal and Expression of Emotions”(Altay, 2011, p. 25).

Optimism / Mood Regulation: “Optimism is the ability to look at life from the bright side and maintain a positive attitude even in difficult situations. Mood Regulation expresses the tendency of the individual to enjoy life by accepting himself/herself and others as they are, and his/her positive emotional state (Bar-On, 2006, p. 4).

Utilization of Emotions: In order for individuals to benefit from their emotions, they must be able to classify their emotions. It directly affects how an individual feels, what and how he/she thinks. For this reason, it is necessary to solve emotions by cleverly blending them with logic, approach to problems, judgment and behaviour. Thus, emotions can be defined more accurately, controlled and can be beneficial in achieving goals.

Appraisal and Expression of Emotions: In order for an individual to perceive and express emotions effectively, he/she must be able to recognize and express emotions in his/her own physical states, feelings and thoughts. This ability is the ability to feel and describe emotionally (Çakar & Arbak, 2004, p. 35).

1.2  Emotional Labour

Emotional labour first emerged in 1983 by Arlie Hochschild in his book, referring to the performances of social actors in their daily lives (Güngör, 2009, p. 169). Emotional labour is based on emotions, just like emotional intelligence. The handling of emotions from the enterprise side constitutes the phenomenon of emotional labour. The concept, which was first discussed by Hochschild, is explained as "the effort of the working person to balance his/her own social perception and the changing climate between people" (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993, p. 90).

The concept of emotional labour was first discussed in Hochschild's (1983) book "The Managed Heart" (Köse et al., 2011, p. 168). While Hochschild (1983) states that emotional labour is “the management of emotions to create clearly observable facial expressions and bodily representations, and Emotional labour is spent for a fee and therefore has exchange value”, Zammuner&Gali (2003), on the other hand, describe emotional labour as “emotional regulation in the context of emotional labour work/study” (Eroğlu, 2014, p. 148).

The concept of emotional labour is a phenomenon that needs to be developed in order to ensure customer satisfaction and strengthen relations with customers. Especially for certain occupational groups, customer communication becomes important. At the beginning of this, there are different occupational groups such as bankers, health workers and teachers in the service sector. All kinds of positive and negative communication with the customer affects the perception of the institution. In negative emotional labour behaviour, customers have negative thoughts about the institution (Kart, 2011, p. 220).

Hochschild (1983) used the term emotional labour to mean "management of the sensation of creating a publicly observable facial and bodily impression". Hochschild's study is a pattern of customer interactions, where the customer is the audience, the employee is the actor, and the work environment is the stage. Hochschild's (1983) point of view offers two main ways for actors to manage emotions: surface acting, in which the individual organizes emotional expressions, and deep acting, in which he/she changes emotions consciously to express the desired emotion (Grandey, 2000, p. 96). These dimensions are classified as surface acting and deep acting. Ashforth& Humphrey (1993, p. 94) included the dimension of displaying spontaneously natural sincere feelings to the dimensions of emotional labour.

Surface acting means “to hide our true feelings and the mimics that these feelings would bring in order to show the emotion we need to express” (Türkay & Yalçın Kayıkçı, 2017, p. 55). Deep acting behaviour, on the other hand, is expressed as "a process related to the control of internal feelings and thoughts in order to comply with the display rules determined by the organization" (Pala & Sürgevil, 2016, p. 776). This dimension means understanding the emotion desired by the organization and managing the employee's emotions in this direction. Natural behaviour, or sincere behaviour according to some definitions, is based on the fact that the emotional state that the employee/worker should exhibit is the same as the emotional state he/she actually feels (Oğuz & Özkul, 2016, p. 133).

1.3 Emotional Burnout

Freudenberger(1974, p. 159) defines burnout as “the wear and psychological exhaustion of employees as a result of their inability to meet the demands and requests with their power, energy and resources”. According to Maslach, burnout syndrome is described as “a syndrome formed by the reflection of long-term fatigue, helplessness and hopelessness feelings with negative attitudes towards work, life and other people, physical exhaustion seen in people who are exposed to intense emotional demands due to their job and who have to constantly work face-to-face with other people” (Maslach & Jackson, 1981).

According to Maslach et al. (1997, p. 193), burnout has three different dimensions. Emotional burnout, which is expressed as the most important of them, is defined as the fact that employees cannot concentrate on their work psychologically due to the increase in the feeling of exhaustion, in other words, the employee experiences emotional and cognitive loss as a result of excessive workload and weariness due to stress (Maslach et al., 2001, p. 403) and is expressed as the stress dimension of burnout (Maslach & Goldberg, 1998, p. 64). It also lays groundwork for the formation of the other two dimensions. Depersonalization, which is the second dimension, is manifested by the individual's display of attitudes and behaviours ignoring the importance they give to the individuals they serve and by denying the individual the feeling of the organization (Sağlam Arı & Çına Bal, 2008, p. 133).The low personal achievement, which is the last dimension of burnout, is expressed as a person's evaluating himself/herself as inadequate in his/her job and not being satisfied in that job. At this stage, the individual is filled with personal feelings of failure. Negative emotional states experienced at work cause reluctance at work and the individual is alienated from work. With these thoughts and feelings, the person considers himself/herself as guilty and inadequate. Thus, the waste of effort and the feeling of guilt prevent the employee from performing the necessary behaviours for success by reducing job satisfaction (Tümkaya et al., 2009, p. 390).

1.4 Studies in the Literature on Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Labour and Emotional Burnout

Some studies and their findings on Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Labour and Emotional Burnout in the literature are as follows:

As a result of their research, Aslan &Özata(2008) determined that positive emotional management and empathic sensitivity dimensions of emotional intelligence are negatively related to the emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout.

Konakay(2013),  in his research, found that emotional intelligence factors explained 13.0% of the emotional burnout variable, and only positive emotional evaluation and positive emotional management among the emotional intelligence factors have an effect on emotional burnout.

As a result of their studies, Polatcı&Özyer(2015) determined that surface behaviour and sincere emotions, which are among the emotional labour strategies, have a partial mediating role in the effect of emotional intelligence on burnout, while the deep behaviour strategy does not play a mediating role.

Yücebalkan&Karasakal(2016), as a result of their research, found that surface acting has a positive relationship with burnout, there is no relationship between deep acting and burnout, and there is a negative relationship between natural feelings and burnout.

Herece&Şener(2017), as a result of their research, found significant and positive relationships between the evaluation of emotions and emotional burnout dimensions, and between the evaluation of emotions and depersonalization dimensions as well.

Koçak&Gürsoy(2018) found in their research that there is a low, positive and significant relationship between emotional labour, burnout, surface behaviour and emotional burnout, that there is a low, negative and significant relationship between deep behaviour and emotional burnout, and there is a low, negative and significant relationship between burnout.

As a result of their research, Güllü&Şahin(2019) concluded that deep acting behaviour is not associated with burnout, and surface acting behaviour is positively associated with depersonalization, albeit at a low level.

Köse(2019), as a result of his research, found that there is a moderate relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout.

As a result of the analyses made by Örücü&Hasırcı(2020), it was found that sincere behaviour, which is a sub-dimension of emotional labour, has a partial effect on burnout.

As a result of their research, Boncukçu&Esen(2020) determined that emotional intelligence levels positively affect emotional labour behaviours and behaviours towards customers.

According to the research results of Şentürk&Karakış(2020), it has been determined that the dimension of positive use of emotions has a positive effect on the surface behaviour dimension, the dimension of empathetic sensitivity has a positive effect on the suppression of feelings, and the dimensions of positive emotional management and positive use of feelings have a positive effect on deep behaviour.

As a result of their study, Baik&Yoom(2012) found that emotional labour has a positive effect on burnout, emotional intelligence has a negative effect on burnout, social support and emotional intelligence mediate the relationship between emotional labour and burnout, and social support mediates the relationship between emotional labour and burnout.

Lee &Chelladurai(2016), as a result of their research, concluded that the dimensions of surface acting and displaying sincere emotions significantly predict emotional burnout, and that emotional intelligence has a mediating effect on the relationship between surface behaviour and emotional burnout.

As a result of their study, Santos et al. (2015) found that emotional intelligence is partially related to emotional labour, emotional intelligence is negatively related to surface behaviour, surface behaviour is positively related to burnout, and surface action partially mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout.

Choi et al. (2019) concluded that deep acting and surface acting do not have a mediating effect on emotional intelligence and burnout, and work stress mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout.

The research model, which was created in line with the main and sub-objectives, based on the studies in the literature, is given below. Emotional intelligence is the independent variable in the research model. Emotional burnout is the dependent variable that is affected by both emotional intelligence and emotional labour. Emotional labour plays a mediating role.

 

 

In this context, the hypotheses of the research are given below.

H1= All employees' emotional intelligence levels affect their emotional labour levels.

H1a= All employees' levels of optimism, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional labour levels.

H1b= All employees’ levels of evaluation of emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional labour levels.

H1c= All employees’ levels of use of emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional labour levels.

H2= All employees’ emotional intelligence levels affect their emotional burnout levels.

H2a= All employees’ levels of optimism, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional burnout levels.

H2b= All employees’ levels of evaluation of emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional burnout levels.

H2c=All employees' levels of use of emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional labour levels.

H3= All employees’ emotional labour levels affect their emotional burnout levels.

H3a=All employees' levels of surface acting, which is a sub-dimension of emotional labour, affect their emotional burnout levels.

H3b= All employees’ levels of deep acting, which is a sub-dimension of the emotional labour, affect their emotional burnout levels.

H3c= All employees’ levels of natural emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional labour, affect their emotional burnout levels.

H4=Emotional labour of all employees plays a mediating role in the effect of emotional intelligence on emotional burnout.

H5=There is a statistically significant difference in emotional intelligence use levels between teachers and bank employees.

H6=There is a statistically significant difference in emotional labour levels between teachers and bank employees.

H7=There is a statistically significant difference in the emotional burnout levels between teachers and bank employees.

 

2 Research methodology

2.1 Sample

 

The research was planned to be conducted on teachers and bankers from service sector employees. The main reason for this selection is that these employees are under intense stress due to the pandemic process, excessive workload, organizational climate, customer demands, etc. In addition, they carry the requirements of these three concepts. Simple random sampling method was used in the study. In the central districts (Meram-Selçuklu-Karatay) affiliated to the Konya Provincial Directorate of National Education, a total of 2102 schools and 39749 teachers work in all primary, secondary and high school schools, both public and private. The population of the research consisted of 8515 teachers working in Meram and Selçuklu districts. On the other hand, 3025 employees of 275 banks, including all state, private and participation banks, work in MeramSelçuklu and Karatay. The universe of the research consisted of 1155 employees from 105 branches in total, including state, private and participation banks in Meram and Selçuklu.

The sample is constituted of 649 out of 8515 private and public school teachers in primary, secondary and high schools operating in Meram and Selçuklu. However, it was observed that some questionnaires were filled incompletely or incorrectly and were not included in the analysis. 391 bank employees in Meram and Selçuklu districts (25 branches in Meram-70 branches in Selçuklu, 897 employees in total) constituted the sample.

2.2 Measures

Quantitative research method was used as a research method and survey technique was used as a technique. The questionnaire form is composed of four parts. In the first part, there are questions to determine the demographic characteristics of teachers and bank employees. In the second part, the scale, which was created by Schutte et al.(1998), based on the Mayer and Salovey approach, revised by Austin et al.(2004), and  adapted into Turkish by Tatar et al. (2011) was used to measure Emotional Intelligence. The scale consists of three sub-dimensions, namely Optimism/Mood Regulation, Evaluation of Emotions, and Use of Emotions, and 41 expressions. The Optimism/Mood Regulation dimension consists of 21 questions, the Evaluation of Emotions dimension consists of 13 questions and the Use of Emotions dimension consists of 7 questions. In the third chapter, the one of the scales developed by Diefendorffvd.(2005); Grandey(2003); Kruml&Geddes’ın(2000) and adapted into Turkish by Basım&Begenirbaş(2012), was used to identify emotional labour. The scale consists of three sub-dimensions: Surface Acting (6 expressions), Deep Acting (4 expressions) and Natural Emotions (3 expressions). In order to determine emotional burnout in the fourth chapter, Emotional Burnout (9 expressions) expressions, one of the sub-dimensions of the scale developed by Maslach&Jacson(1981) and adapted into Turkish by Ergin(1992), were used. All scales are 5-point Likert scales.

  • Data analysis

SPSS 25 package program and LISREL 9.30 were used in the analysis of the data collected in the research. The data obtained from the sample included in the research were evaluated with descriptive analysis, normal distribution test, frequency analysis, calculation of Cronbach's alpha value which is an internal consistency indicator, explanatory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, regression analysis, structural equation modelling and mannwhitney u test.

  • Results

3.1 Demographic Findings

Demographic information of the teacher participants is given in Table 1 and Demographic information of the banker participants is given in Table 2.

Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Teachers

 

F

%

Gender

Female

288

56,6

Male

221

43,4

Age

21-25

52

10,2

26-30

68

13,4

31-35

127

25,0

36-40

120

23,6

41 and Over

142

27,9

Marital Status

Single

125

24,6

Married

384

75,4

Educational Background

Undergraduate

412

80,9

Postgraduate

89

17,5

Doctorate

8

1,6

 

Table 2: Demographic Characteristics of Bankers

 

F

%

Gender

Female

137

35,0

Male

254

65,0

Age

21-25

18

4,6

26-30

83

21,2

31-35

140

35,8

36-40

83

21,2

41-45

50

12,8

46-50

17

4,3

Marital Status

Single

100

25,6

Married

291

74,4

Educational Background

High School

27

6,9

Associate degree

27

6,9

Undergraduate

260

66,5

Postgraduate

74

18,9

Doctorate

3

0,8

3.2 Validity and Reliability of Data Collection Tool

Table 3: Reliability Coefficients of Scales

Scale

Measuring Range

Item Number

Cronbach Alpha Coefficient

Emotional Intelligence

5 point scale (1-5)

41

0,771

Emotional Labour

5 point scale (1-5)

13

0,768

Emotional Burnout

5 point scale (1-5)

9

0,920

According to Table 3, it is seen that the scales used in the research have a high level of reliability (internal consistency). The reliability coefficients of the scales vary between 0.768 and 0.920.

3.3 Explanatory Factor Analysis

In order to carry out factor analysis, the conditions that the data set is suitable for factor analysis and that the number of samples is sufficient must be met. For this reason, emotional intelligence, emotional labour and emotional burnout scales were checked in terms of the assumptions in question with the KMO and Bartlett Test of Sphericity. Regarding this criterion, Kaiser (1974) expresses the 0.50 ratio as an almost acceptable cut-off point. He classified the KMO value between 0.50-0.70 as moderate, between 0.70-0.80 as good, between 0.80-0.90 as very good and above 0.90 as excellent (Ö. M. Çolakoğlu & Büyükekşi, 2014, p. 60).  As a result of the factor analysis, it was seen that the KMO value of the Emotional Intelligence scale was 0.90. According to this result, it was concluded that the sample size was sufficient for factor analysis. The Bartlett sphericity test, on the other hand, gives information about the relationship between the scale items and determines whether the scales are one-dimensional or have sub-dimensions. In the Bartlett test of sphericity, p<0.05 is desired. According to the results of the Bartlett Sphericity test, the items of the scale are in sufficient correlation with each other. In addition, scale items are effective in measuring the phenomenon that is intended to be measured.

The reliability of the emotional intelligence scale, which was evaluated within the scope of the research, was examined by analysing the factor load values. Varimax rotation factor analysis was applied to the scale, attention was paid to ensure that the eigenvalues of the sub-factors were greater than 1, the explanation percentage of the variance was at least 2/3, and the factor loads were 0.50 and above. Low value items were excluded from the scale (Çini et al., 2021, p. 2364). According to the results obtained, it was determined that the 3-dimensional structure of the emotional intelligence scale compatible with the literature was valid. The factor load values of the scale sub-items were above 0.50. Three sub-dimensions were determined. Sub-dimensions: Optimism, Evaluation of Emotions and Use of Emotions. Paying attention to the reversed items (3-4-6-8-10-12-13-14-17-20-22-23-24-25-26-28-34-35-39-40-41st statements were reverse coded) analysis was conducted. Since the 1,5,9,15,20,23,24,25,26,31,36th statements did not carry the required value, they were excluded from the scale. The reliability of the emotional labour scale was examined by checking the factor load values. Varimax rotation factor analysis was applied to the scale, attention was paid to ensure that the eigenvalues of the sub-factors were greater than 1, the explanation percentage of the variance was at least 2/3, and the factor loads were 0.50 and above. Low value items were excluded from the scale. According to the results obtained, it was determined that the 3-dimensional structure of the emotional labour scale compatible with the literature was valid. The factor load values of the scale sub-items were above 0.70. Sub-dimensions: Surface acting, Deep acting and Natural emotions. The KMO value of the Emotional Burnout scale was calculated above 0.50. The Bartlett sphericity test, on the other hand, gives information about the relationship between the scale items and determines whether the scales are one-dimensional or have sub-dimensions. In the Bartlett test of sphericity, p<0.05 is desired. According to the results of the Bartlett Sphericity test, the items of the scale are in sufficient correlation with each other. In addition, scale items are effective in measuring the phenomenon they want to measure. It was concluded that the sample size was sufficient for factor analysis.

The principles followed during the analysis of the other two scales were also taken into consideration in this scale. According to the results obtained, it was determined that the one-dimensional structure of emotional burnout was valid. The factor load values of the scale sub-items were above 0.60.

3.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results of the Scales

After exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. In confirmatory factor analysis, χ2 value, goodness of fit criteria and t value are criteria that show the suitability of the proposed model. In the confirmatory factor analysis results, attention was paid to ensure that the variances were higher than 1.00 and the standard regression weight values were higher than 0.70. In addition, attention was paid to ensure that the t value was at the 5% significance level and t>1.96 (Byrne, 1995, p. 150; Çini et al., 2021, p. 2364). The fit measures of the scales used in the model of the study are shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Goodness of Fit Indexes of the Scales

Fit Index

 

Cut-off Points for Acceptance

Fit Indexes of Scales

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Labour

Emotional Burnout

χ2/ sd

χ2/ sd ˂4

3,17

2,03

1,96

RMSEA

0,00˂ 0,05= Excellent fit

≤0,05-0,08= Acceptable fit

0,08

Acceptable fit

0,05

Acceptable fit

0,04

Excellent fit

NFI

 

≥0,95= Excellent fit

≥0,90= Acceptable fit

0,90

Acceptable fit

0,94

Acceptable fit

0,95

Excellent fit

NNFI

≥0,95= Excellent fit

≥0,90= Acceptable fit

0,90

Acceptable fit

0,94

Acceptable fit

0,96

Excellent fit

CFI

≥0,97= Excellent fit

≥0,95= Acceptable fit

0,95

Acceptable fit

0,96

Acceptable fit

0,97

Excellent fit

GFI

 

≥0,90= Excellent fit

≥0,85= Acceptable fit

0,85

Acceptable fit

0,89

Acceptable fit

0,91

Excellent fit

AGFI

≥0,90= Excellent fit

≥0,85= Acceptable fit

0,84

Acceptable fit

0,86

Acceptable fit

0,90

Excellent fit

IFI

≥0,95= Excellent fit

≥0,90= Acceptable fit

0,90

Acceptable fit

0,93

Acceptable fit

0,95

Excellent fit

 (Source: Seçer, 2013, p. 152)

Table 5:  Confirmatory Factor Analysis Values of the Scales

Emotional Intelligence Scale

Sub-Dimensions

Item

Std. Reg.

Weight

t

value

 

Factor 1

Optimism/Mood Regulation

DZÖ37

,695

21,07

DZÖ33

,673

20,78

DZÖ30

,650

19,96

DZÖ38

,649

19,63

DZÖ27

,646

19,47

DZÖ29

,640

19,12

DZÖ16

,597

15,96

DZÖ11

,587

15,13

DZÖ18

,576

14,78

DZÖ35

,570

14,23

DZÖ21

,565

13,85

DZÖ19

,547

12,87

DZÖ2

,508

11,20

DZÖ7

,501

11,05

Factor 2

Evaluation of Emotions

DZÖ35

,710

15,94

DZÖ40

,686

13,89

DZÖ41

,654

12,65

DZÖ39

,632

11,37

DZÖ12

,607

10,29

DZÖ22

,601

10,08

DZÖ17

,596

9,87

DZÖ28

,596

9,87

DZÖ6

,585

9,34

DZÖ8

,581

9,27

DZÖ3

,570

9,01

Factor 3

Use of Emotions

DZÖ34

,742

18,52

DZÖ14

,703

16,41

DZÖ10

,685

13,74

DZÖ13

,567

12,23

DZÖ4

,560

11,99

Emotional Labour Scale

 

 

Factor 1

Surface Role Play

DEÖ6

,852

11,98

DEÖ4

,832

9,56

DEÖ2

,801

8,78

DEÖ3

,785

6,63

DEÖ1

,774

6,14

DEÖ5

,753

5,75

 

Factor 2

Deep Role Play

DEÖ9

,882

9,27

DEÖ10

,863

8,72

DEÖ7

,854

8,09

DEÖ8

,817

6,93

 

Factor 3

Natural Emotions

DEÖ13

,857

9,78

DEÖ11

,834

8,96

DEÖ12

,827

8,17

Emotional Burnout Scale

 

 

Factor 1

Emotional Burnout

DTÖ9

,879

11,41

DTÖ6

,865

10,53

DTÖ1

,848

9,34

DTÖ5

,810

8,45

DTÖ2

,793

8,12

DTÖ3

,785

7,96

DTÖ4

,771

7,62

DTÖ7

,702

5,38

DTÖ8

,683

4,39

3.5 Regression Analysis Results

The results of the regression analysis performed to test H1, H2 and H3are presented in tables below. The regression analysis, which examines whether emotional intelligence has an effect on emotional labour, is shown in Table 6 below.

Table 6 | The Effect of Emotional Intelligence Sub-Dimensions on Emotional Labour

Independent variable

Dependent variable

 

R

R2

 

F

Beta

Std Error

t

 

Emotional Intelligence Sub-Dimensions

 

 

Emotional Labour

0,391

0,209           

18,171

1,867

,186

10,019

,000

Optimism

,374

,244

,037

6,673

,000

Evaluation of Emotions

,280

,104

,027

2,274

,000

Use of Emotions

,327

,409

,030

5,374

,001

As seen in Table 6, the model created is significant (F=18,171; p = .000). Sub-dimensions of emotional intelligence have a positive effect on emotional labour (β=1,867). It explains 20.9% of the total variance (R2=.209). The hypothesis "H1= All employees' emotional intelligence levels affect their emotional labour levels" is accepted with its sub-dimensions.

“H1a=The sub-hypothesis “All employees' levels of optimism, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional labour levels” is accepted.

“H1b=The sub-hypothesis "All employees’ levels of evaluation of emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional labour levels” is accepted.

“H1c=The sub-hypothesis "All employees’ levels of use of emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional labour levels“ is accepted.

Table 7: The Effect of Emotional Intelligence Sub-Dimensions on Emotional Burnout

Independent variable

Dependent variable

 

R

R2

 

F

Beta

StdError

t

 

Emotional Intelligence Sub-Dimensions

 

Emotional Burnout

-0,393

0,213           

42,577

-2,332

,285

-8,183

,000

Optimism

-,318

-,194

,056

-2,578

,000

Evaluation of Emotions

-,202

-,179

,046

-1,908

,001

Use of Emotions

-,446

-,409

0,46

-8,891

,000

As seen in Table 7, sub-dimensions of emotional intelligence have an effect on emotional burnout. Sub-dimensions of emotional intelligence have a negative effect on emotional burnout (β=-2.332). It explains 21.3% of the total variance (R2=.213). The hypothesis "H2= The hypothesis “All employees’ emotional intelligence levels affect their emotional burnout levels" is accepted with its sub-dimensions.

“H2a=The hypothesis "All employees’ levels of optimism, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional burnout levels" is accepted.

 “H2b=Thehypothesis “All employees’ levels of evaluation of emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional burnout levels” is accepted.

“H2c=The hypothesis "All employees' levels of use of emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional intelligence, affect their emotional labour levels" is accepted.

Table 8: The Effect of Emotional Labour Sub-Dimensions on Emotional Burnout

Independent variable

Dependent variable

 

R

R2

 

F

Beta

Std Error

t

 

Emotional Labour Sub-Dimensions

 

 

Emotional Burnout

0,417

0,224           

33,351

3,019

,196

15,432

,000

Surface Role Play

,541

,394

,056

4,578

,001

Deep Role Play

,375

,079

,035

1,908

,996

Natural Emotions

-,379

-,409

0,46

-8,891

,000

                   

As seen in Table 8, sub-dimensions of emotional labour have an effect on emotional burnout. Sub-dimensions of emotional labour have a positive effect on emotional burnout (β=3.019). It explains 22.4% of the total variance (R2=.224). The hypothesis “H3= All employees’ emotional labour levels affect their emotional burnout levels.” is accepted with two sub-dimensions.

“H3a=The hypothesis "All employees' levels of surface acting, which is a sub-dimension of emotional labour, affect their emotional burnout levels" is accepted.

“H3b= The hypothesis "All employees’ levels of deep acting, which is a sub-dimension of emotional labour, affect their emotional burnout levels" is rejected.

“H3c= The hypothesis "All employees’ levels of natural emotions, which is a sub-dimension of emotional labour, affect their emotional burnout levels" is accepted.

3.6 Hypothesis Testing in the Context of the Structural Equation Model

With the scales that took their final form with confirmatory factor analysis, the stage of verifying the mediation effect in the conceptual model created at the beginning of the research was conducted. At the stage of testing the model created at the beginning of the research with path analysis, attention was paid to ensure that the t values were at the 5% significance level and t>1.96. The evaluation of the 4th hypothesis in the context of the research model is presented in Table 9.

Table 9: Investigation of the Mediation Role of Emotional Labour between Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Burnout in the Context of Structural Equation Model

Hypothesis

Estimation (ß)

SE

t

 

Result

H4= Emotional labour of all employees plays a mediating role in the effect of emotional intelligence on emotional burnout.

0,107

,126

11,252

0,02

ACCEPTED

As seen in Table 9, emotional intelligence has an effect on emotional burnout through emotional labour. It explains 10.7% of the total variance. The hypothesis " H4=Emotional labour of all employees plays a mediating role in the effect of emotional intelligence on emotional burnout" is accepted.

3.7 Comparison Analysis

Whether there is a significant difference in the concepts of emotional intelligence, emotional labour and emotional burnout between the teachers and bankers participating in the research is examined in detail in the tables below.

Table 10:Mann Whitney U Test Results According to Emotional Intelligence Variable of Teachers and Bank Employees

Variables

Group

N

Rank Average

Rank Total

U

P

Emotional Intelligence

Teacher

509

490,97

249903,50

78401,5

0,001*

Bank Employees

391

396,53

154646,50

*<0,05

In Table 10, according to the Mann Whitney U test results, a statistically significant difference was found between the emotional intelligence levels of teachers and bank employees for the variable of occupation (U=78401.5; p<0.05). It was determined that the emotional intelligence levels of the teachers (Mdn=3,804) were higher than those of the bank employees (Mdn=3,658). The hypothesis "H5= There is a statistically significant difference in emotional intelligence use levels between teachers and bank employees" is accepted.

Table 11: Mann Whitney U Test Results According to Emotional Labour Variable of Bank Employees and Teachers

Variables

Group

N

Rank Average

Rank Total

U

P

Emotional Labour

Teacher

509

454,26

231220,50

97084,5

0,573

Bank Employees

391

444,43

173329,50

In Table 11, according to the Mann Whitney U test results, no statistically significant difference was found between the occupation (U=97084.5; p<0.05) dimension of the emotional labour variable of teachers and bank employees. The hypothesis "H6=There is a statistically significant difference in emotional labour levels between teachers and bank employees“ is rejected.

Table12: Mann Whitney U Test Results According to Emotional Burnout Variable of Bank Employees and Teachers

Variables

Group

N

Rank Average

Rank Total

U

P

Emotional Burnout

Teacher

509

406,03

206668,00

76873

0,001*

Bank Employees

390

507,39

197882,00

In Table 12, according to the Mann Whitney U test result, a statistically significant difference was found between the emotional burnout variable of teachers and bank employees and the dimension of occupation (U=76873; p<0.05). It was determined that the emotional burnout levels of bank employees (Mdn=2.666) were higher than teachers (Mdn=2.222). The hypothesis "H7= There is a statistically significant difference in the emotional burnout levels between teachers and bank employees”is accepted.

Conclusion

Employees in the service sector interact much more closely with customers. In order to increase the success of this interaction, employees are expected to manage their emotions in business processes and to spend emotional labour. The concept of emotional intelligence emerges in the management of emotions. It is known that people with high emotional intelligence have a higher level of awareness and control over their own emotions. In addition, it is emphasized that they should include their feelings at the point of the effort they put into their work, and pressure can be applied in this regard. Employees who do not try to use their emotional intelligence in business life or are not even aware of it may experience burnout because they cannot cope with the stress in the work environment. The concept of emotional burnout is taken as the beginning of burnout. Recently, different ways of reducing the burnout levels experienced by service sector employees operating in an intensely competitive environment have been investigated.

Looking into the results of the research, the effect of emotional intelligence and emotional labour scales on emotional burnout was examined with regression analysis. Sub-dimensions of emotional intelligence have a positive effect on emotional labour (β=1,867). It explains 20.9% of the total variance (R2=.209). The hypothesis “All employees' emotional intelligence levels affect their emotional labour levels" is accepted with its sub-dimensions. Sub-dimensions of emotional intelligence have a negative effect on emotional burnout (β=-2.332). It explains 21.3% of the total variance (R2=.213). The hypothesis "H2= All employees’ emotional intelligence levels affect their emotional burnout levels" is accepted with its sub-dimensions. The sub-dimensions of emotional labour have a positive effect on emotional burnout (β=3.019). It explains 22.4% of the total variance (R2=.224). The hypothesis “H3= All employees’ emotional labour levels affect their emotional burnout levels” is accepted with two sub-dimensions.

In order to verify the mediation effect in the conceptual model, the SEM stage was conducted. According to the SEM analysis carried out in line with the criteria taken as basis, the 4th Hypothesis is accepted. It explains 10.7% of the total variance. The hypothesis "H4= Emotional labour of all employees plays a mediating role in the effect of emotional intelligence on emotional burnout" is accepted.

According to the results of Mann Whitney U test, a statistically significant difference was found for the variable of occupation (U=78401.5; p<0.05) of emotional intelligence levels of teachers and bank employees. It was concluded that the emotional intelligence levels of the teachers were higher than those of the bank employees (Mdn=3,804>3,658). The hypothesis "H5= There is a statistically significant difference in emotional intelligence use levels between teachers and bank employees" is accepted. In addition, a statistically significant difference was found between the emotional burnout variable and the occupation (U=76873; p<0.05). Emotional burnout levels of the bank employees (Mdn=2.666>2.222) were found to be higher than those of the teachers. The hypothesis “H7= There is a statistically significant difference in the emotional burnout levels between teachers and bank employees” is accepted.

According to the results of this research, different suggestions can be given by considering both occupational groups.

For teachers;

  1. Rewarding can be provided by making payments such as premiums when working out of working hours such as additional lessons.
  2. Staff can be rested by starting flexible working hours.
  3. Meetings can be held in order to increase their commitment to their organizations in business life.
  4. Stress management trainings can be increased.
  5. Plans should be made in advance in organizations for unexpected situations such as pandemics and important decisions can be included in these plans.
  6. Programs supporting teachers can be applied, especially in branches with high burnout levels.

For Bank Employees;

  1. Flexibility can be provided in terms of providing high performance along with the work to be done.
  2. The number of daily customers can be determined according to the density on a branch basis, and the employee's performance can be supported by giving extra breaks to the employees in busy branches.
  3. Their commitment to the organization can increased with trainings and meetings, both inside and outside the job.
  4. Stress management trainings should be given regularly, especially for bank employees who work at risk, and they can be supported with practice.
  5. Flexible working conditions can be provided by arranging plans such as working from home and employing more personnel in adverse conditions such as pandemics.
  6. In this occupational group, where burnout is common, the working environment and hours can be improved.

Acknowledgement

This study is derived from the Master's Thesis titled "The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Emotional Labour and Emotional Burnout" presented at Necmettin Erbakan University, Social Sciences Institute in 2022.

 

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