Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.603
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

The Effect of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Job Performance: A Study of College Teaching Faculties

 

Dr. Mukesh

Assistant Professor,

Department of Commerce

Government College

Sector-9, Gurugram

(Corresponding author)

 

 

Prof. Dr. Mahabir Narwal

Professor,

Department of Commerce

Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

 

 

 

Abstract

A teacher shares his/her knowledge, experience and skills with students, so that they can get benefits from it. However, some additional work or tasks may influence their teaching quality which further influences study of students. The study investigated how job stress, job satisfaction influence job performance of the faculty members of government colleges in Haryana (India). Determinants of job satisfaction (happiness at workplace, institution support, communication with colleagues) and job stress (workload) have been analyzed under this research. The data was collected from 162 respondents (teaching faculty) using convenience and snowball sampling methods. For the analysis, smart PLS was used according to hypotheses proposed in this study. Findings revealed that there is significant influence of happiness at workplace, institution support, and communication with colleagues on job satisfaction and workload also positively influence job stress. Further, job stress and job satisfaction significantly place an impact on the performance of the employees.

Keywords: Institutions, Job stress, Job performance, job satisfaction, workload, teaching.

 

 

 

 

Introduction

There is a dynamic change in Indian business environment. It is inseparable from organization that they need proactive employees who can show their proactive behaviour in different situations like; intense, unpredictable and fast growing competition. Also these kinds of employees are the most important assets for organizations, same as in teaching institutions. In teaching institutions, role, quality and teaching abilities of a teacher are prominent, also the learning and teaching process is greatly supported by institutions infrastructure facilities. Universities and educational institutions are considered as organisations which are established to achieve defined objectives under its limits (Thomas, 2004). Social, cultural and economic development initiatives are highly influenced by teaching profession (Hiebert et al., 2002).

The education sector has changed its learning and teaching practices due to COVID-19 pandemic worldwide and moved to online from offline learning (Lizana et al., 2021; Van et al., 2020). A kid’s academic performance is enhanced if the teacher is satisfied with his work (Judge et al., 2020). In educational institutions, the most dominant assets are teachers (Ma & MacMillan, 1999). Few studies have focused on the effect of workplace self-efficacy, workplace stress and workplace engagement on job satisfaction of teachers (Elrayah, 2022). Job responsibility and working hours are increasing frequently at work place. There are working individuals, dual career and single parent families which required changes (Razak et al., 2014). According to Chang et al. (2017), low productivity, high turnover of worker, increase in absenteeism and poor job quality caused by stress at work place. Teachers face health issues due to stress in Germany (Braeunig et al., 2018).

Lecturers of universities in China also face pressure in balancing research, life demands and work related to teaching which cause mental and physical issues (Liu et al., 2015). Overindulgent stress can be the reason of obstruction in organizational effectiveness and performance of the employee (Husin et al., 2017). Headaches, anxiety disorders, heart disease, hypertension and psychosomatic disorders are linked with high level of stress in university lecturers (Liu et al., 2015). It is expected that employees should participate in extracurricular activities, stay more at work, teach voluntarily to new employees and do work with responsibilities with co-workers (Ghosh, 2016). Past researchers found that job satisfaction is positively influenced by environment in the office (Raziq&Maulabakhsh, 2015, Probst et al., 2010; Kretzschmer et al., 2017). On the other hand, some authors primarily concentrated on colleges and schools (Elrayah, 2022; Aldridge & Fraser, 2016; Türkoglu et al., 2017; Demirdag, 2015). The administration should provide a favourable environment for teaching and various programs and tactics to boost the satisfaction level of a teacher (Shann, 1998). A teacher contributes more for their educational institutions and students, when he or she is happy and works enthusiastically (Demirtas, 2010).

Job satisfaction level of the teacher is influences by instructor’s perception and cooperation (Toropova et al., 2021). A lecturer must concentrate on their job description if they feel stressed, as it will harm students and teachers performance. Stress is linked with mental health and it is connected with individuals/employees productivity, health and job performance (Jaafar et al., 2020). Smith (2007) noticed that in past three years workload of 80 percent educator’s raised, as a result, their stress increased. Salaries are given according to job descriptions. If a task is allotted to an employee who is out of job description, can be the reason of stress. The stress can be minimized if the teacher is paid more for extra work done by him (Amina& Raymond, 2014).  Due to internal or external meetings, teachers miss their class which results in stress and create bad reputation of a teacher. Additional tasks can affect learning and teaching process. For additional tasks, lecturers need more time and they have to reschedule their teaching. As a result, in allotted time they have to perform multiple tasks (Jaafar et al., 2020).

Melhe et al. (2021) identified high level of emotional stability as the reason for high job satisfaction and low level of emotional stability as low job satisfaction in teachers. Based on previous studies, the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of independent factors (workload, happiness at workplace, institution support, and communication with colleagues) on dependent factors (job stress and job satisfaction), job stress influence on job satisfaction and influence of both on job performance. This research provide recommendations to institutions and government institutions, colleges to increase job satisfaction, their support, good environment at work place for teaching faculty through reducing workload, counselling for stress management and development of management practices and information regarding research.

 

Literature review

 

It could be great for organization and individual if employee is satisfied with his job and have positive feelings for the same. These kinds of employee perform in a better way than their co-workers or colleagues (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Uzun&Ozdem (2017) described positive feelings, pleasure, happiness, satisfaction and enjoyment as the ingredients of job satisfaction for teachers. Strategies which are people centred would provide benefit to the organization and employee will perform in a better way (Pfeffer& Jeffrey, 1998).

Communication with colleagues:

There are different factors which influence trust of an employee in top management (Jabeen&Isakovic, 2018). With concerned to younger employees, flexibility of job plays an important role in employee satisfaction (Baeza et al., 2018). Fun at workplace positively influences employee satisfaction as it can be viewed as refreshing (Plester& Hutchison, 2016). High turnover of employees are the result of poor and unfavourable working conditions (Milman, 2002). Working environment includes manager behaviour, communication at work place, colleagues and political environment (Paula Silva, 2006). Less support and less supervision from manager can be the reason of stress and turnover in employees (Yahayaet la., 2009). It creates strong bond with organization if employee is satisfied with communication (Dasgupta et al., 2012). Lahap et al. (2016) found that internal communication on one of the important factor who enhances the service and delivery qualityMalaysian hotel industry.  Ruck &Trainor (2012) also stated that there is increase in participation due to internal communication as managers recognize its importance. Communication experience may be influenced by communication between employees and among managers and employees (Obushenkova et al., 2018). Following hypothesis has framed on the basis of above discussion:

H1: Communication with colleagues influences job satisfaction.

Happiness at Work place

In people’s lives, happiness is at the top and this concept is discussed for many decades in western literature. At present, it’s also an important topic and a new terminology used for this construct namely happiness at work (Fisher, 2010; Pryce-Jones, 2011). It is also called as pleasant experiences or judgments, feeling good about work, right feelings for the organization and good feelings about job characteristics (Fisher, 2010).  Parker &Hyett (2011) recognized several factors which influence happiness at work; work characteristics (size and environment of the company), characteristics of workers (education level, relationship status, age and gender) and job characteristics (schedule, salary, level of danger and promotion). Due to disappointment with performance of coworkers’, stressful workload and not able to communicate feelings that related to others are some reasons of low well-being of teachers which can be the reason of depression (Kidger et al., 2016). There is favorable relation of HAW (happiness at work) with success, readiness to team up with colleagues, higher level of performance (Tadić et al., 2013). High quality of life upgraded by happiness indicates well-being of human (Dhingra&Dhingra 2021). Happiness at work allows employees to enjoy their work and show their momentary emotion and state of mind (Salas-Vallina et al., 2018). Happiness at work and organizational commitment is positively influenced by psychological capital (Wen & Liu-Lastres, 2021). Better mental health cause high level of job satisfaction of teachers’ in India and Japan (Nagai et al., 2007; Benevene et al.,2018). Researchers found that organizational commitment and job satisfaction significantly influenced by trust between co-workers and management (Lambert et al., 2021). Based on above derived propositions, following hypotheses has been framed:

H2: Happiness at work place positively influences job satisfaction.

Institution support

Organizational support is basic element of organizational commitment. Employees work with more enthusiasm for the organization if they are shown that organization needs them. Employees produce positive actions for organization if they are appraised and benefited for their efforts (Demircan&Yildiz, 2009). If the employees are highly supported by their employer, in reciprocity employees should be loyal, dedicated to the organization with less turnover possibility, high job performance and high commitment (Miao, 2011; Hui et al., 2007; Allen et al., 2013). Teachers are facing pressures and challenges in completing their work due to covid-19 and they need support from organization (Oubibi et al., 2022). High rate of traumatic symptoms, stress and depression are linked to low perceived organization support and mental health of employees will be better with high perceived organization support (Chatzittofis et al., 2021). Higher job satisfaction is achieved by employees who experience high perceived organizational support (Sudibjo&Manihuruk, 2022; Zhang et al., 2020; Zeng et al., 2020; Maan et al., 2020; Bilgin&Demirer, 2012). Employees’ performance is positively influenced by support provided by organization (Manyasi et al., 2011). In contrast, Stamper &Johlke (2003) found no relation of organizational support with the performance of sales people. Hence, based on above discussion below mentioned hypothesis is designed:

H3: Institution support influences the job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction & Job performance

Level of positive decisions and actions developed from evaluation of job attributes can be explained as job satisfaction (Adams & Bond, 2000). On the other hand, Job performance means achieving organisational or job goals in a stipulated time period (Jacobs et al., 2013). Employee show positive emotions for organization if employee is satisfied from his job and it boost his morale. Jamal (2007) mentioned that when an employee, with available resources in the organization complete his task with success is called job performance. While doing job, if employees get support in muddle from their supervisors, they make a decision and stay in organization (Hakro et al., 2022).  Employees quit and stay decisions influenced by role of supervisors (Kitur, 2015). Good packages also help employees to make stay decisions (Tunio et al., 2021). Employee’s performance plays most important role in achieving target of the organization (Wang et al., 2015). Gharib et al., (2016) found that job performance significantly not influenced by role ambiguity and role conflict. Job stress minimizes job satisfaction and this result in employees quitting jobs (Singh et al., 2019).

Table 1: Employees job satisfaction factors at workplace

Factors

 

 

Stress and workload

 

·         High responsibilities

·         Deadliness

·         High workload

Financial rewards

 

 

·         Salary

·         Fairness in pay

Opportunities for improvement

 

·         Advancement in career

·         Improvement opportunities provided by companies (university education & training cost)

Communication with managers and supervisors

 

Managers and supervisors must provide following to employees for their efforts:

·         Reward

·         Encouragement

·         appreciation

·         discussion of issues

Mutual respect between employees

 

·         Unfriendly working environment

·         Not treating colleagues with respect

·         Aggressive nature of people

Working conditions

 

 

·         Confined space

·         Better lighting

·         Better working conditions

·         Confortable furniture with standard

Source: Singh et al., (2019)

 

Alshuaybat (2021) conducted a study on college and found that teacher who is not interested in their job and less committed to their job is not so much eminent in teaching. Also they are not mentally or emotionally loyal to that work environment. Following hypothesis is developed in this regard:

H4: Job satisfaction significantly influences job performance.

Job stress

Nowadays, in many organizations job stress is common (Munir&Rana, 2011). In a stressful environment, there will be high burnout, less organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Silva et al., 2021). Nagesh& Murthy (2008) identified lack of career growth and supervisor behavior as the causes of job stress at work. Due to job stress, employees do underperform and they perform significant when job stress is less.

Table 2: Studies on reasons for stress

             Reasons

Researches

1.       

Financial insecurity

·         Mano & Shay, 2004

2.       

Overload

·         Franch&Caplan ,1972

·         Russek&Zohman, 1958

3.       

Responsibility for people

·         French &Caplan, 1972

·         Pincherle, 1972

4.       

Keeping up with quick technological change

·         Kahn, et al.1964

·         Lawrence &Lorsch, 1967

5.       

Lack of feedback

·         Cassel, 1974

6.       

Participation

·         Kasl, 1973

·         Margolis et al., 1974

7.       

Role conflict

·         Caplan& Jones, 1975

·         Hall & Gordon, 1973

·         Kahn et al., 1964

8.       

Career growth

·         Brook, 1973

·         Erikson et al., 1972

·         Kahn et al., 1964

9.       

Being in an innovative role

·         Kahn et al.1964

·         Lawrence &Lorsch, 1970

10.   

Role ambiguity

·         French &Caplan, 1972

·         Kahnet al., 1964

Source: Qureshi et al. (2012)

To reduce stress at job, employees are provided with learning and education through managers (Mimura & Griffiths, 2003). Due to job stress in employees, an organization faces less profitability and productivity (Mahesar, 2015). Job stress significantly influences employee turnover intention (Hakro et al., 2022; Shah et al., 2010). When a person is unable to manage the stress with strategies which amount to rise in stress and reduce in wellbeing (Senol-Durak et al., 2021). Neumann et al. (2017) compared unpleasant job experience of the stressed employees. Job stress significantly not influences job satisfaction and performance of the employee (Sobia&Aftab, 2014; Kitur, 2015). Therefore, keeping in mind the previous researches, following hypothesizes are framed:

H5: Job stress significantly influence job performance

H6: Job stress significantly influence job satisfaction

Workload

 

High workload influence employee’s personal and professional life and create hurdles which results in turnover intention (Jhatial et al., 2012). With high workload, employees respond moderate or low and stand dissatisfied from job (Hakro et al., 2021; Hakro et al., 2022). It can be seen from organizations performance that due to work overload, employees are unable to perform up to the expectations and stand mentally absent at job (Kitur, 2015). With job stress, employees feel disintegrated and do not perform well (Arshad&Puteh, 2015). Absenteeism is the way employees choose to avoid excess stress and make excuses to avoid regular duty (Donkor& Zhou, 2020). Moderate level of workload helps employee to deliver the best to organization and also keep him satisfied (Shah et al., 2010). Average workload helps employee to remain happy and deliver good services. Also, pay packages and equal amount of workload helps employees to keep him satisfied without intentions of turnover (Mangi et al., 2012). Thus, following hypothesis framed:

H7: Workload significantly influences job stress.

Research Methodology

In PLS-SEM, there is no requirement of strict assumption and through it; all data scale can be examined (Ghozali&Latan, 2015). Variables were modified and adopted from previous studies and questionnaire was prepared on seven point likert scale.

Sample collection

Research setting for this study is teaching faculties in government colleges located in the state of Haryana. The framework is set to see the impact of job stress and job satisfaction on the performance of teaching faculties in colleges. It is expected that a happy teacher perform his/her very well. Higher education is becoming distended in an uncoordinated way (Umashankar&Dutta, 2007). This research is based on sample size of 162 teaching faculty in various government colleges in Haryana.

27 key attributes for 7 constructs were used in the study. The data was collected through convenience and snowball sampling method. Social groups are used for the data collection as per their convenience and further collected data from their contacts. 162 responses were found valid for the analysis out of 200 responses. Responses with missing values and outlier were screened out. The data was analyzed through Partial Least Square structural equation modeling (PLS SEM).

Hair et al. (2014) mentioned that for outer loading, more than 0.7 values is acceptable and if the value of indicator is 0.4, it should be deleted. If the values are between 0.4 to 0.7, indicators should be tested.

Table 3: Sample characteristics

Category

 

Frequency

Percentage

Gender

Female

122

75.3

Male

40

24.7

Age

21-30

46

28.4

31-40

72

44.4

Above 40

44

27.2

Marital status

Single

25

15.4

Married

137

84.6

 

 

Income

Below 70,000

12

7.4

Rs.70,000 to Rs.80,000

15

9.3

Rs.80,000 to Rs.90,000

47

29.0

Above Rs.90,000

88

54.3

 

From the inspection of table 3 it was found that maximum respondents are of 31-40 years of age (44.4 percent) followed by 21 to 30 years (28.4 percent) and above 40 (27.2 percent). Maximum respondents are female 122 (75.3 percent) out of 162 followed by 40 male (24.7 percent). All respondents in the study belong to teaching profession. 54.3 percent respondents are of above Rs.90,000 income group followed by Rs.80,000-Rs.90,000 (29.0 percent), Rs.70,000-Rs.80,000 (9.3 percent) and below Rs.70,000 (7.4 percent). 84.6 percent respondents are married and 15.4 percent are unmarried.

 

Statistical Approach

Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS software version 20. To investigate the reliability of scale, cronbach’s alpha was used. Further analysis was done using a PLS SEM with smartPLS 3. According to Henseler, Ringle and Sinkovics (2009)for prediction oriented research, PLS SEM is a powerful tool and also for validating and testing exploratory research models, it is one of the most applicable tool. Assessment of measurement model is the first stage in PLS SEM where CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) is conducted to know discriminant as well as convergent validity.

In discriminant validity, value of each construct of AVE should be greater than the other construct’s correlation coefficients as shown in table 5 (Fornell&Larcker, 1981). It was observed that value of AVE should be higher than 0.5 (Hair et al., 2014). In convergent validity, amount of measure and alternative measure are correlated with each other in same construct is shown (Velayutham, Aldridge, & Fraser, 2012). According to Malhotra& Dash (2011), CR value should be greater than 0.7.

Figure 1: proposed model

Source: Author compilation

 

Results

CFA (Confirmatory Factor Analysis)

Composite reliability is a good and upper bond reliability than CA (cronbach’s alpha), as later is considered as lower bond (Hair et al., 2011;Wong, 2013). The threshold value for CR is 0.7 for constructs and if value is higher, then model is considered as good for internal reliability. The CR values for all constructs are ranging from 0.839 to 0.943.

If the value of AVE is below 0.5, it is assumed that there is error in the construct. The suggested value of AVE is above 0.5 and it can be seen from table 4 that value of AVE for all constructs are above 0.5 ranging from 0.619 to 0.77 (Bagozzi& Yi, 1988).

The model was also found valid in the case of discriminant validity as shown in table 5.

Table 4: Outer loadings, CR, AVE

 

COMMUNICATION WITH COLLEAGUES

HAPPINESS AT WORK PLACE

INSTITUTION SUPPORT

JOB PERFORMANCE

JOB SATISFACTION

JOB STRESS

WORKLOAD

CR

AVE

CWC1

0.74

         

 

 

 

CWC2

0.778

         

 

0.844

0.645

CWC3

0.885

         

 

 

 

HWP1

 

0.73

       

 

 

 

HWP2

 

0.808

       

 

0.866

0.619

HWP3

 

0.793

       

 

 

 

HWP4

 

0.814

       

 

 

 

IS1

   

0.863

     

 

 

 

IS2

   

0.842

     

 

 

 

IS3

   

0.823

     

 

0.943

0.77

IS4

   

0.936

     

 

 

 

IS5

   

0.918

     

 

 

 

JP1

     

0.708

   

 

 

 

JP2

     

0.862

   

 

0.85

0.656

JP3

     

0.851

   

 

 

 

JS1

         

0.733

 

 

 

JS2

         

0.863

 

 

 

JS3

         

0.732

 

0.899

0.641

JS4

         

0.866

 

 

 

JS5

         

0.8

 

 

 

JSAT1

       

0.757

 

 

 

 

JSAT2

 

 

 

 

0.759

 

 

0.839

0.636

JSAT3

 

 

 

 

0.871

 

 

 

 

W1

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.859

 

 

W2

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.846

0.921

0.745

W3

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.875

 

 

W4

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.871

 

 

                     

Notes: CWC= communication with colleagues, HWP= happiness at work place, IS= Institution support, JP= job performance, JS= job stress, JSAT= job satisfaction, W= workload

 

Table 5: Discriminant validity (Fornell and larckercriterian)

 

COMMUNICATION WITH COLLEAGUES

HAPPINESS AT WORK PLACE

INSTITUTION SUPPORT

JOB PERFORMANCE

JOB SATISFACTION

JOB STRESS

WORKLOAD

COMMUNICATION WITH COLLEAGUES

0.803

   

 

 

 

 

HAPPINESS AT WORK PLACE

0.597

0.787

 

INSTITUTION SUPPORT

0.618

0.628

0.877

 

JOB PERFORMANCE

0.659

0.666

0.751

0.81

 

JOB SATISFACTION

0.67

0.716

0.689

0.701

0.797

 

JOB STRESS

0.492

0.606

0.488

0.549

0.633

0.801

 

WORKLOAD

0.615

0.547

0.362

0.492

0.486

0.429

0.863

Source: Author’s compilation using PLS-SEM.

 

 

Bootstrapping

According to Hair et al (2013), to estimate path model, re-sampling approach (from data) is used to drawn random samples with replacement. Figure 2 is showing relationship between happiness at work place, institution support, communication with colleagues, workload, job satisfaction, job stress and job performance (7 constructs).

 

Fig 2: Bootstrapping

 

Table 6 showing that after bootstrap it was seen that communication with colleagues (t= 3.813, p=***), happiness at work place(t= 3.529, p=***), institution support (t= 3.79, p=***) positively influencejob satisfaction of the teaching faculties in colleges. Job satisfaction (t=8.948, p=***) and job stress (t= 2.336, p= 0.02) significantly influence job performance. Also,workload (t= 6.419, p= ***) positively affect job stress, which further influence job satisfaction (t= 3.341, p= 0.001).

Table 6: Results of hypothesis

Hypothesis

Original Sample (O)

Sample Mean (M)

Standard Deviation (STDEV)

T Statistics (|O/STDEV|)

P Values

Results

H1

COMMUNICATION WITH COLLEAGUES -> JOB SATISFACTION

0.232

0.232

0.061

3.813

0

Supported

H2

HAPPINESS AT WORK PLACE -> JOB SATISFACTION

0.276

0.278

0.078

3.529

0

 

 

Supported

H3

INSTITUTION SUPPORT -> JOB SATISFACTION

0.264

0.264

0.07

3.79

0

 

Supported

H4

JOB SATISFACTION -> JOB PERFORMANCE

0.589

0.593

0.066

8.948

0

 

 

Supported

H5

JOB STRESS -> JOB PERFORMANCE

0.176

0.175

0.075

2.336

0.02

Supported

H6

JOB STRESS -> JOB SATISFACTION

0.223

0.224

0.067

3.341

0.001

Supported

H7

WORKLOAD -> JOB STRESS

0.429

0.437

0.067

6.419

0

Supported

Source: Using PLS-SEM

 

R2&Q2

For structural model evaluation, coefficient of determination (R square) is used. In this, exogenous construct’s mutual effect is shown on endogenous constructs. According to Hair, Ringle and Sarstedt (2011), values of 0.25, 0.50 & 0.75 can be mentioned as weak, moderate and substantial. Values of R2 ranges from 0.184 to 0.676 as shown in table 7. Values of Stone &Geisser are used for cross validation of endogenous variables for predictive relevance of model (Stone, 1974; Geisser, 1974). According to Hair et al. (2014), more than 0 value show predictive relevance of the path model for endogenous constructs. The values after performing blindfolding test in PLS SEM with omission distance of 7, is shown in table 7. Values of all the constructs are above 0 for predictive relevance of the model.

Table 7: R2 and Q2

 

R Square

R Square Adjusted

Effect size

Q² (=1-SSE/SSO)

 

JP

0.509

0.503

Substantial

0.317

JSAT

0.676

0.668

Substantial

0.418

JS

0.184

0.179

Weak

0.111

 

 

 

Discussion and conclusion

 

In an organization, human factor is an important factor to maintain to achieve competitiveness. To understand better, job evaluation is required of work force. From the above study it can be concluded that there is significant positive correlation between job stress, job satisfaction and job performance. After implementation of 7th pay commission by GOI (government of India), the privileges and salary received by teaching faculties are with standard at par. Institutions should understand the needs of employees and should offer the best to them. Appreciation and appraisal functions should be there to boost enthusiasm in employees which will further motivate the employees and will help in reducing job stress. The objectives of this study was to check the influence of communication with colleagues, institution support and happiness at work place on job satisfaction, influence of work load on job stress, impact of job stress on job satisfaction and job performance and impact of job satisfaction on job performance.

To conclude this research, there are some key points based on the findings of study. It was found that there is significant influence of communication with colleagues (H1) on job satisfaction (Cuic et al., 2022), happiness at work place (H2) and institution support (H3) on job satisfaction (Sudibjo&Manihuruk, 2022) and job satisfaction (H4) on job performance (Ni Komang et al., 2020; Hamsal et al., 2022; Kumar, 2022). It leads to more problems if the institution or organization fails to provide the healthy working environment, which further influences the performance of teaching faculty. It was also seen that work load (H7) positively influence job or work stress (Ahsan et al., 2009; Susiarty et al., 2019; Nanda et al., 2020; Dhal et al., 2022; Saedpanah et al., 2022) and further job stress (H6) influence job satisfaction of the employee (Singh et al., 2019; Tentama et al., 2019; Abdullah et al., 2022). At last it was found that high stress affects the employees’ job performance which may further influence the study of students.

 

Implications

This study provides various managerial implications for the teaching institutions. Happiness at work place, institution support and communication with colleagues influence job satisfaction of the teachers. Therefore, institutions should provide proper working environment, opportunities to grow and gatherings to appreciate teachers. Institutions/organizations should focus on well-being of teachers as this may affect the quality of teaching. Institutions must foster cooperative environment where employees will be given optimum level of work load so that it may further not influence the performance of an employee.

 

Limitations & future research

 

In this study, we used convenience sampling technique which limits the results generalization. To better understand the demographic profile of each segment, larger sample size is required. This study only conducted with sample size of 162. The study is restricted to Haryana state only. Computation of subconscious influences was not there which may influence the result. Future research can be conducted on the comparison of teaching and non-teaching faculties. Research work carried out with sample of government teaching faculties in colleges and a separate study can be carried out to see the influence of various factors on teaching faculties in private colleges.Replication of the study can be done in other colleges with different state or colleges in different countries. Qualitative research can be conducted to apprehend the reason why one level of attribute chosen over the other. For better insights, experts and retired person could be interviewed.

 

References:

 

 

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Adams, A., & Bond, S. (2000). Hospital nurses’ job satisfaction, individual and organizational characteristics. Journal of advanced nursing32(3), 536-543.

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The Effect of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Job Performance: A Study of College Teaching Faculties

 

Dr. Mukesh

Assistant Professor,

Department of Commerce

Government College

Sector-9, Gurugram

(Corresponding author)

 

 

Prof. Dr. Mahabir Narwal

Professor,

Department of Commerce

Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

 

 

 

Abstract

A teacher shares his/her knowledge, experience and skills with students, so that they can get benefits from it. However, some additional work or tasks may influence their teaching quality which further influences study of students. The study investigated how job stress, job satisfaction influence job performance of the faculty members of government colleges in Haryana (India). Determinants of job satisfaction (happiness at workplace, institution support, communication with colleagues) and job stress (workload) have been analyzed under this research. The data was collected from 162 respondents (teaching faculty) using convenience and snowball sampling methods. For the analysis, smart PLS was used according to hypotheses proposed in this study. Findings revealed that there is significant influence of happiness at workplace, institution support, and communication with colleagues on job satisfaction and workload also positively influence job stress. Further, job stress and job satisfaction significantly place an impact on the performance of the employees.

Keywords: Institutions, Job stress, Job performance, job satisfaction, workload, teaching.

 

 

 

 

Introduction

There is a dynamic change in Indian business environment. It is inseparable from organization that they need proactive employees who can show their proactive behaviour in different situations like; intense, unpredictable and fast growing competition. Also these kinds of employees are the most important assets for organizations, same as in teaching institutions. In teaching institutions, role, quality and teaching abilities of a teacher are prominent, also the learning and teaching process is greatly supported by institutions infrastructure facilities. Universities and educational institutions are considered as organisations which are established to achieve defined objectives under its limits (Thomas, 2004). Social, cultural and economic development initiatives are highly influenced by teaching profession (Hiebert et al., 2002).

The education sector has changed its learning and teaching practices due to COVID-19 pandemic worldwide and moved to online from offline learning (Lizana et al., 2021; Van et al., 2020). A kid’s academic performance is enhanced if the teacher is satisfied with his work (Judge et al., 2020). In educational institutions, the most dominant assets are teachers (Ma & MacMillan, 1999). Few studies have focused on the effect of workplace self-efficacy, workplace stress and workplace engagement on job satisfaction of teachers (Elrayah, 2022). Job responsibility and working hours are increasing frequently at work place. There are working individuals, dual career and single parent families which required changes (Razak et al., 2014). According to Chang et al. (2017), low productivity, high turnover of worker, increase in absenteeism and poor job quality caused by stress at work place. Teachers face health issues due to stress in Germany (Braeunig et al., 2018).

Lecturers of universities in China also face pressure in balancing research, life demands and work related to teaching which cause mental and physical issues (Liu et al., 2015). Overindulgent stress can be the reason of obstruction in organizational effectiveness and performance of the employee (Husin et al., 2017). Headaches, anxiety disorders, heart disease, hypertension and psychosomatic disorders are linked with high level of stress in university lecturers (Liu et al., 2015). It is expected that employees should participate in extracurricular activities, stay more at work, teach voluntarily to new employees and do work with responsibilities with co-workers (Ghosh, 2016). Past researchers found that job satisfaction is positively influenced by environment in the office (Raziq&Maulabakhsh, 2015, Probst et al., 2010; Kretzschmer et al., 2017). On the other hand, some authors primarily concentrated on colleges and schools (Elrayah, 2022; Aldridge & Fraser, 2016; Türkoglu et al., 2017; Demirdag, 2015). The administration should provide a favourable environment for teaching and various programs and tactics to boost the satisfaction level of a teacher (Shann, 1998). A teacher contributes more for their educational institutions and students, when he or she is happy and works enthusiastically (Demirtas, 2010).

Job satisfaction level of the teacher is influences by instructor’s perception and cooperation (Toropova et al., 2021). A lecturer must concentrate on their job description if they feel stressed, as it will harm students and teachers performance. Stress is linked with mental health and it is connected with individuals/employees productivity, health and job performance (Jaafar et al., 2020). Smith (2007) noticed that in past three years workload of 80 percent educator’s raised, as a result, their stress increased. Salaries are given according to job descriptions. If a task is allotted to an employee who is out of job description, can be the reason of stress. The stress can be minimized if the teacher is paid more for extra work done by him (Amina& Raymond, 2014).  Due to internal or external meetings, teachers miss their class which results in stress and create bad reputation of a teacher. Additional tasks can affect learning and teaching process. For additional tasks, lecturers need more time and they have to reschedule their teaching. As a result, in allotted time they have to perform multiple tasks (Jaafar et al., 2020).

Melhe et al. (2021) identified high level of emotional stability as the reason for high job satisfaction and low level of emotional stability as low job satisfaction in teachers. Based on previous studies, the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of independent factors (workload, happiness at workplace, institution support, and communication with colleagues) on dependent factors (job stress and job satisfaction), job stress influence on job satisfaction and influence of both on job performance. This research provide recommendations to institutions and government institutions, colleges to increase job satisfaction, their support, good environment at work place for teaching faculty through reducing workload, counselling for stress management and development of management practices and information regarding research.

 

Literature review

 

It could be great for organization and individual if employee is satisfied with his job and have positive feelings for the same. These kinds of employee perform in a better way than their co-workers or colleagues (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Uzun&Ozdem (2017) described positive feelings, pleasure, happiness, satisfaction and enjoyment as the ingredients of job satisfaction for teachers. Strategies which are people centred would provide benefit to the organization and employee will perform in a better way (Pfeffer& Jeffrey, 1998).

Communication with colleagues:

There are different factors which influence trust of an employee in top management (Jabeen&Isakovic, 2018). With concerned to younger employees, flexibility of job plays an important role in employee satisfaction (Baeza et al., 2018). Fun at workplace positively influences employee satisfaction as it can be viewed as refreshing (Plester& Hutchison, 2016). High turnover of employees are the result of poor and unfavourable working conditions (Milman, 2002). Working environment includes manager behaviour, communication at work place, colleagues and political environment (Paula Silva, 2006). Less support and less supervision from manager can be the reason of stress and turnover in employees (Yahayaet la., 2009). It creates strong bond with organization if employee is satisfied with communication (Dasgupta et al., 2012). Lahap et al. (2016) found that internal communication on one of the important factor who enhances the service and delivery qualityMalaysian hotel industry.  Ruck &Trainor (2012) also stated that there is increase in participation due to internal communication as managers recognize its importance. Communication experience may be influenced by communication between employees and among managers and employees (Obushenkova et al., 2018). Following hypothesis has framed on the basis of above discussion:

H1: Communication with colleagues influences job satisfaction.

Happiness at Work place

In people’s lives, happiness is at the top and this concept is discussed for many decades in western literature. At present, it’s also an important topic and a new terminology used for this construct namely happiness at work (Fisher, 2010; Pryce-Jones, 2011). It is also called as pleasant experiences or judgments, feeling good about work, right feelings for the organization and good feelings about job characteristics (Fisher, 2010).  Parker &Hyett (2011) recognized several factors which influence happiness at work; work characteristics (size and environment of the company), characteristics of workers (education level, relationship status, age and gender) and job characteristics (schedule, salary, level of danger and promotion). Due to disappointment with performance of coworkers’, stressful workload and not able to communicate feelings that related to others are some reasons of low well-being of teachers which can be the reason of depression (Kidger et al., 2016). There is favorable relation of HAW (happiness at work) with success, readiness to team up with colleagues, higher level of performance (Tadić et al., 2013). High quality of life upgraded by happiness indicates well-being of human (Dhingra&Dhingra 2021). Happiness at work allows employees to enjoy their work and show their momentary emotion and state of mind (Salas-Vallina et al., 2018). Happiness at work and organizational commitment is positively influenced by psychological capital (Wen & Liu-Lastres, 2021). Better mental health cause high level of job satisfaction of teachers’ in India and Japan (Nagai et al., 2007; Benevene et al.,2018). Researchers found that organizational commitment and job satisfaction significantly influenced by trust between co-workers and management (Lambert et al., 2021). Based on above derived propositions, following hypotheses has been framed:

H2: Happiness at work place positively influences job satisfaction.

Institution support

Organizational support is basic element of organizational commitment. Employees work with more enthusiasm for the organization if they are shown that organization needs them. Employees produce positive actions for organization if they are appraised and benefited for their efforts (Demircan&Yildiz, 2009). If the employees are highly supported by their employer, in reciprocity employees should be loyal, dedicated to the organization with less turnover possibility, high job performance and high commitment (Miao, 2011; Hui et al., 2007; Allen et al., 2013). Teachers are facing pressures and challenges in completing their work due to covid-19 and they need support from organization (Oubibi et al., 2022). High rate of traumatic symptoms, stress and depression are linked to low perceived organization support and mental health of employees will be better with high perceived organization support (Chatzittofis et al., 2021). Higher job satisfaction is achieved by employees who experience high perceived organizational support (Sudibjo&Manihuruk, 2022; Zhang et al., 2020; Zeng et al., 2020; Maan et al., 2020; Bilgin&Demirer, 2012). Employees’ performance is positively influenced by support provided by organization (Manyasi et al., 2011). In contrast, Stamper &Johlke (2003) found no relation of organizational support with the performance of sales people. Hence, based on above discussion below mentioned hypothesis is designed:

H3: Institution support influences the job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction & Job performance

Level of positive decisions and actions developed from evaluation of job attributes can be explained as job satisfaction (Adams & Bond, 2000). On the other hand, Job performance means achieving organisational or job goals in a stipulated time period (Jacobs et al., 2013). Employee show positive emotions for organization if employee is satisfied from his job and it boost his morale. Jamal (2007) mentioned that when an employee, with available resources in the organization complete his task with success is called job performance. While doing job, if employees get support in muddle from their supervisors, they make a decision and stay in organization (Hakro et al., 2022).  Employees quit and stay decisions influenced by role of supervisors (Kitur, 2015). Good packages also help employees to make stay decisions (Tunio et al., 2021). Employee’s performance plays most important role in achieving target of the organization (Wang et al., 2015). Gharib et al., (2016) found that job performance significantly not influenced by role ambiguity and role conflict. Job stress minimizes job satisfaction and this result in employees quitting jobs (Singh et al., 2019).

Table 1: Employees job satisfaction factors at workplace

Factors

 

 

Stress and workload

 

·         High responsibilities

·         Deadliness

·         High workload

Financial rewards

 

 

·         Salary

·         Fairness in pay

Opportunities for improvement

 

·         Advancement in career

·         Improvement opportunities provided by companies (university education & training cost)

Communication with managers and supervisors

 

Managers and supervisors must provide following to employees for their efforts:

·         Reward

·         Encouragement

·         appreciation

·         discussion of issues

Mutual respect between employees

 

·         Unfriendly working environment

·         Not treating colleagues with respect

·         Aggressive nature of people

Working conditions

 

 

·         Confined space

·         Better lighting

·         Better working conditions

·         Confortable furniture with standard

Source: Singh et al., (2019)

 

Alshuaybat (2021) conducted a study on college and found that teacher who is not interested in their job and less committed to their job is not so much eminent in teaching. Also they are not mentally or emotionally loyal to that work environment. Following hypothesis is developed in this regard:

H4: Job satisfaction significantly influences job performance.

Job stress

Nowadays, in many organizations job stress is common (Munir&Rana, 2011). In a stressful environment, there will be high burnout, less organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Silva et al., 2021). Nagesh& Murthy (2008) identified lack of career growth and supervisor behavior as the causes of job stress at work. Due to job stress, employees do underperform and they perform significant when job stress is less.

Table 2: Studies on reasons for stress

             Reasons

Researches

1.       

Financial insecurity

·         Mano & Shay, 2004

2.       

Overload

·         Franch&Caplan ,1972

·         Russek&Zohman, 1958

3.       

Responsibility for people

·         French &Caplan, 1972

·         Pincherle, 1972

4.       

Keeping up with quick technological change

·         Kahn, et al.1964

·         Lawrence &Lorsch, 1967

5.       

Lack of feedback

·         Cassel, 1974

6.       

Participation

·         Kasl, 1973

·         Margolis et al., 1974

7.       

Role conflict

·         Caplan& Jones, 1975

·         Hall & Gordon, 1973

·         Kahn et al., 1964

8.       

Career growth

·         Brook, 1973

·         Erikson et al., 1972

·         Kahn et al., 1964

9.       

Being in an innovative role

·         Kahn et al.1964

·         Lawrence &Lorsch, 1970

10.   

Role ambiguity

·         French &Caplan, 1972

·         Kahnet al., 1964

Source: Qureshi et al. (2012)

To reduce stress at job, employees are provided with learning and education through managers (Mimura & Griffiths, 2003). Due to job stress in employees, an organization faces less profitability and productivity (Mahesar, 2015). Job stress significantly influences employee turnover intention (Hakro et al., 2022; Shah et al., 2010). When a person is unable to manage the stress with strategies which amount to rise in stress and reduce in wellbeing (Senol-Durak et al., 2021). Neumann et al. (2017) compared unpleasant job experience of the stressed employees. Job stress significantly not influences job satisfaction and performance of the employee (Sobia&Aftab, 2014; Kitur, 2015). Therefore, keeping in mind the previous researches, following hypothesizes are framed:

H5: Job stress significantly influence job performance

H6: Job stress significantly influence job satisfaction

Workload

 

High workload influence employee’s personal and professional life and create hurdles which results in turnover intention (Jhatial et al., 2012). With high workload, employees respond moderate or low and stand dissatisfied from job (Hakro et al., 2021; Hakro et al., 2022). It can be seen from organizations performance that due to work overload, employees are unable to perform up to the expectations and stand mentally absent at job (Kitur, 2015). With job stress, employees feel disintegrated and do not perform well (Arshad&Puteh, 2015). Absenteeism is the way employees choose to avoid excess stress and make excuses to avoid regular duty (Donkor& Zhou, 2020). Moderate level of workload helps employee to deliver the best to organization and also keep him satisfied (Shah et al., 2010). Average workload helps employee to remain happy and deliver good services. Also, pay packages and equal amount of workload helps employees to keep him satisfied without intentions of turnover (Mangi et al., 2012). Thus, following hypothesis framed:

H7: Workload significantly influences job stress.

Research Methodology

In PLS-SEM, there is no requirement of strict assumption and through it; all data scale can be examined (Ghozali&Latan, 2015). Variables were modified and adopted from previous studies and questionnaire was prepared on seven point likert scale.

Sample collection

Research setting for this study is teaching faculties in government colleges located in the state of Haryana. The framework is set to see the impact of job stress and job satisfaction on the performance of teaching faculties in colleges. It is expected that a happy teacher perform his/her very well. Higher education is becoming distended in an uncoordinated way (Umashankar&Dutta, 2007). This research is based on sample size of 162 teaching faculty in various government colleges in Haryana.

27 key attributes for 7 constructs were used in the study. The data was collected through convenience and snowball sampling method. Social groups are used for the data collection as per their convenience and further collected data from their contacts. 162 responses were found valid for the analysis out of 200 responses. Responses with missing values and outlier were screened out. The data was analyzed through Partial Least Square structural equation modeling (PLS SEM).

Hair et al. (2014) mentioned that for outer loading, more than 0.7 values is acceptable and if the value of indicator is 0.4, it should be deleted. If the values are between 0.4 to 0.7, indicators should be tested.

Table 3: Sample characteristics

Category

 

Frequency

Percentage

Gender

Female

122

75.3

Male

40

24.7

Age

21-30

46

28.4

31-40

72

44.4

Above 40

44

27.2

Marital status

Single

25

15.4

Married

137

84.6

 

 

Income

Below 70,000

12

7.4

Rs.70,000 to Rs.80,000

15

9.3

Rs.80,000 to Rs.90,000

47

29.0

Above Rs.90,000

88

54.3

 

From the inspection of table 3 it was found that maximum respondents are of 31-40 years of age (44.4 percent) followed by 21 to 30 years (28.4 percent) and above 40 (27.2 percent). Maximum respondents are female 122 (75.3 percent) out of 162 followed by 40 male (24.7 percent). All respondents in the study belong to teaching profession. 54.3 percent respondents are of above Rs.90,000 income group followed by Rs.80,000-Rs.90,000 (29.0 percent), Rs.70,000-Rs.80,000 (9.3 percent) and below Rs.70,000 (7.4 percent). 84.6 percent respondents are married and 15.4 percent are unmarried.

 

Statistical Approach

Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS software version 20. To investigate the reliability of scale, cronbach’s alpha was used. Further analysis was done using a PLS SEM with smartPLS 3. According to Henseler, Ringle and Sinkovics (2009)for prediction oriented research, PLS SEM is a powerful tool and also for validating and testing exploratory research models, it is one of the most applicable tool. Assessment of measurement model is the first stage in PLS SEM where CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) is conducted to know discriminant as well as convergent validity.

In discriminant validity, value of each construct of AVE should be greater than the other construct’s correlation coefficients as shown in table 5 (Fornell&Larcker, 1981). It was observed that value of AVE should be higher than 0.5 (Hair et al., 2014). In convergent validity, amount of measure and alternative measure are correlated with each other in same construct is shown (Velayutham, Aldridge, & Fraser, 2012). According to Malhotra& Dash (2011), CR value should be greater than 0.7.

Figure 1: proposed model

Source: Author compilation

 

Results

CFA (Confirmatory Factor Analysis)

Composite reliability is a good and upper bond reliability than CA (cronbach’s alpha), as later is considered as lower bond (Hair et al., 2011;Wong, 2013). The threshold value for CR is 0.7 for constructs and if value is higher, then model is considered as good for internal reliability. The CR values for all constructs are ranging from 0.839 to 0.943.

If the value of AVE is below 0.5, it is assumed that there is error in the construct. The suggested value of AVE is above 0.5 and it can be seen from table 4 that value of AVE for all constructs are above 0.5 ranging from 0.619 to 0.77 (Bagozzi& Yi, 1988).

The model was also found valid in the case of discriminant validity as shown in table 5.

Table 4: Outer loadings, CR, AVE

 

COMMUNICATION WITH COLLEAGUES

HAPPINESS AT WORK PLACE

INSTITUTION SUPPORT

JOB PERFORMANCE

JOB SATISFACTION

JOB STRESS

WORKLOAD

CR

AVE

CWC1

0.74

         

 

 

 

CWC2

0.778

         

 

0.844

0.645

CWC3

0.885

         

 

 

 

HWP1

 

0.73

       

 

 

 

HWP2

 

0.808

       

 

0.866

0.619

HWP3

 

0.793

       

 

 

 

HWP4

 

0.814

       

 

 

 

IS1

   

0.863

     

 

 

 

IS2

   

0.842

     

 

 

 

IS3

   

0.823

     

 

0.943

0.77

IS4

   

0.936

     

 

 

 

IS5

   

0.918

     

 

 

 

JP1

     

0.708

   

 

 

 

JP2

     

0.862

   

 

0.85

0.656

JP3

     

0.851

   

 

 

 

JS1

         

0.733

 

 

 

JS2

         

0.863

 

 

 

JS3

         

0.732

 

0.899

0.641

JS4

         

0.866

 

 

 

JS5

         

0.8

 

 

 

JSAT1

       

0.757

 

 

 

 

JSAT2

 

 

 

 

0.759

 

 

0.839

0.636

JSAT3

 

 

 

 

0.871

 

 

 

 

W1

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.859

 

 

W2

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.846

0.921

0.745

W3

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.875

 

 

W4

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.871

 

 

                     

Notes: CWC= communication with colleagues, HWP= happiness at work place, IS= Institution support, JP= job performance, JS= job stress, JSAT= job satisfaction, W= workload

 

Table 5: Discriminant validity (Fornell and larckercriterian)

 

COMMUNICATION WITH COLLEAGUES

HAPPINESS AT WORK PLACE

INSTITUTION SUPPORT

JOB PERFORMANCE

JOB SATISFACTION

JOB STRESS

WORKLOAD

COMMUNICATION WITH COLLEAGUES

0.803

   

 

 

 

 

HAPPINESS AT WORK PLACE

0.597

0.787

 

INSTITUTION SUPPORT

0.618

0.628

0.877

 

JOB PERFORMANCE

0.659

0.666

0.751

0.81

 

JOB SATISFACTION

0.67

0.716

0.689

0.701

0.797

 

JOB STRESS

0.492

0.606

0.488

0.549

0.633

0.801

 

WORKLOAD

0.615

0.547

0.362

0.492

0.486

0.429

0.863

Source: Author’s compilation using PLS-SEM.

 

 

Bootstrapping

According to Hair et al (2013), to estimate path model, re-sampling approach (from data) is used to drawn random samples with replacement. Figure 2 is showing relationship between happiness at work place, institution support, communication with colleagues, workload, job satisfaction, job stress and job performance (7 constructs).

 

Fig 2: Bootstrapping

 

Table 6 showing that after bootstrap it was seen that communication with colleagues (t= 3.813, p=***), happiness at work place(t= 3.529, p=***), institution support (t= 3.79, p=***) positively influencejob satisfaction of the teaching faculties in colleges. Job satisfaction (t=8.948, p=***) and job stress (t= 2.336, p= 0.02) significantly influence job performance. Also,workload (t= 6.419, p= ***) positively affect job stress, which further influence job satisfaction (t= 3.341, p= 0.001).

Table 6: Results of hypothesis

Hypothesis

Original Sample (O)

Sample Mean (M)

Standard Deviation (STDEV)

T Statistics (|O/STDEV|)

P Values

Results

H1

COMMUNICATION WITH COLLEAGUES -> JOB SATISFACTION

0.232

0.232

0.061

3.813

0

Supported

H2

HAPPINESS AT WORK PLACE -> JOB SATISFACTION

0.276

0.278

0.078

3.529

0

 

 

Supported

H3

INSTITUTION SUPPORT -> JOB SATISFACTION

0.264

0.264

0.07

3.79

0

 

Supported

H4

JOB SATISFACTION -> JOB PERFORMANCE

0.589

0.593

0.066

8.948

0

 

 

Supported

H5

JOB STRESS -> JOB PERFORMANCE

0.176

0.175

0.075

2.336

0.02

Supported

H6

JOB STRESS -> JOB SATISFACTION

0.223

0.224

0.067

3.341

0.001

Supported

H7

WORKLOAD -> JOB STRESS

0.429

0.437

0.067

6.419

0

Supported

Source: Using PLS-SEM

 

R2&Q2

For structural model evaluation, coefficient of determination (R square) is used. In this, exogenous construct’s mutual effect is shown on endogenous constructs. According to Hair, Ringle and Sarstedt (2011), values of 0.25, 0.50 & 0.75 can be mentioned as weak, moderate and substantial. Values of R2 ranges from 0.184 to 0.676 as shown in table 7. Values of Stone &Geisser are used for cross validation of endogenous variables for predictive relevance of model (Stone, 1974; Geisser, 1974). According to Hair et al. (2014), more than 0 value show predictive relevance of the path model for endogenous constructs. The values after performing blindfolding test in PLS SEM with omission distance of 7, is shown in table 7. Values of all the constructs are above 0 for predictive relevance of the model.

Table 7: R2 and Q2

 

R Square

R Square Adjusted

Effect size

Q² (=1-SSE/SSO)

 

JP

0.509

0.503

Substantial

0.317

JSAT

0.676

0.668

Substantial

0.418

JS

0.184

0.179

Weak

0.111

 

 

 

Discussion and conclusion

 

In an organization, human factor is an important factor to maintain to achieve competitiveness. To understand better, job evaluation is required of work force. From the above study it can be concluded that there is significant positive correlation between job stress, job satisfaction and job performance. After implementation of 7th pay commission by GOI (government of India), the privileges and salary received by teaching faculties are with standard at par. Institutions should understand the needs of employees and should offer the best to them. Appreciation and appraisal functions should be there to boost enthusiasm in employees which will further motivate the employees and will help in reducing job stress. The objectives of this study was to check the influence of communication with colleagues, institution support and happiness at work place on job satisfaction, influence of work load on job stress, impact of job stress on job satisfaction and job performance and impact of job satisfaction on job performance.

To conclude this research, there are some key points based on the findings of study. It was found that there is significant influence of communication with colleagues (H1) on job satisfaction (Cuic et al., 2022), happiness at work place (H2) and institution support (H3) on job satisfaction (Sudibjo&Manihuruk, 2022) and job satisfaction (H4) on job performance (Ni Komang et al., 2020; Hamsal et al., 2022; Kumar, 2022). It leads to more problems if the institution or organization fails to provide the healthy working environment, which further influences the performance of teaching faculty. It was also seen that work load (H7) positively influence job or work stress (Ahsan et al., 2009; Susiarty et al., 2019; Nanda et al., 2020; Dhal et al., 2022; Saedpanah et al., 2022) and further job stress (H6) influence job satisfaction of the employee (Singh et al., 2019; Tentama et al., 2019; Abdullah et al., 2022). At last it was found that high stress affects the employees’ job performance which may further influence the study of students.

 

Implications

This study provides various managerial implications for the teaching institutions. Happiness at work place, institution support and communication with colleagues influence job satisfaction of the teachers. Therefore, institutions should provide proper working environment, opportunities to grow and gatherings to appreciate teachers. Institutions/organizations should focus on well-being of teachers as this may affect the quality of teaching. Institutions must foster cooperative environment where employees will be given optimum level of work load so that it may further not influence the performance of an employee.

 

Limitations & future research

 

In this study, we used convenience sampling technique which limits the results generalization. To better understand the demographic profile of each segment, larger sample size is required. This study only conducted with sample size of 162. The study is restricted to Haryana state only. Computation of subconscious influences was not there which may influence the result. Future research can be conducted on the comparison of teaching and non-teaching faculties. Research work carried out with sample of government teaching faculties in colleges and a separate study can be carried out to see the influence of various factors on teaching faculties in private colleges.Replication of the study can be done in other colleges with different state or colleges in different countries. Qualitative research can be conducted to apprehend the reason why one level of attribute chosen over the other. For better insights, experts and retired person could be interviewed.

 

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