Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.603
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

Evolving New Social Media Paradigms for Sustainable Consumer Retention: The Mediating Role of Trust, Attitude, and Loyalty of Brand

Dr. Brijesh Awasthi

Associate Professor,

IBS, ICFAI University,

Jaipur, India

 

 

Abstract

Today marketing strategies influenced by social media.  Social media empowers companies to inform, update, influence, and retain existing consumers easily and the other side social media share the feedback and reviews of customers. Social media marketing endows companies to generate perceived brand trust, brand loyalty and brand attitude among consumers to repurchase the companies’ products and services. This research analyses the effect of social media marketing on Indian customers to repurchase branded products. Further, it explored the mediating effect of brand attitude, brand trust, and brand loyalty on consumer retention of brands (Branded products) among Indian consumers. Data was collected from 18 metropolitan cities of India through online questionnaire, for final analysis 521 responses was eligible after data cleaning. The study’s results indicated that activities on social media marketing influenced Indian customer’s repurchase intention of luxury products. Social media marketing professionals of companies required to keep updating the information of luxury products on social media for promoting and create awareness of luxury products. The information about high-quality, long-lasting, futuristic and the most important ‘must have’ attributes of sustainable luxury products can help in sustainable consumer retention or sustainable repurchase of luxury products. They also need to keep focusing and concentrate on social networking sites and other social media for feedback and reviews written by consumers. Social media marketing provides assistance to achieve brand loyalty, brand trust, and brand attitude. Finally, the implications and guidelines for the forthcoming research of this study are discussed in the final section.

 

Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Repurchase Intention, Branded Product, Brand Attitude, Brand Loyalty, Brand Trust, Consumer Retention.

 

Introduction

Today marketing strategies are influenced by digital web communication.  Social media empowers companies to inform, impress, and retain existing consumers easily and other side social media shares the feedback and reviews of customers. Social media marketing endows companies to generate perceived brand trust, brand loyalty, and brand attitude among consumers to repurchase the companies’ products and services.Many brands are collaborating with social influencers to encourage their target consumers on social media and give a strong presence in social media environments. influencers not only promote but defend the brand in social media environments during the anti-branding campaign (Awasthi et al., 2012).Social media marketing as well as social networking sites strengthen the association between customer and brand in the uncertain and competitive; online and offline marketing environment.

 

Brand loyalty is the consumers blind behaviour, attachment and commitment with brand (Chinomona&Maziriri, 2017).Brand loyalty is affected by cognitive and emotional behavior of consumers.Brand attitude is customers thinking and perceiving about the product, service and brand (Venter de Villiers et al., 2018). Three components are included in brand attitude namely affective, behavioural, cognitive (Medina-Molina et al., 2021;Ray et al., 2021).Brand trust consists emotions or feelings of consumers that they can rely upon the branded product otherwise due to lack of such feelings they hesitate to repurchase the branded product and not recommend the product to others. Brand trust is considered one of the important factors to predict consumers repurchase intentions. Repurchasing or retention intentions is the behaviour of consumers to purchasing of the same product or service again and again as well as participate in positive WOM and recommendations (Ibzan, Balarabe&Jakada, 2016).

 

Therefore, brand loyalty, brand attitude, and brand trust have vital influences that ensure that customers have strong intentions to purchase and, in the future, repurchase the same products and brands from offline (Physical Stores)or online platforms. Brand attitude, brand loyalty, and brand trust are affected by social media activities and communication on social networking sites.

 

Although the effects of social media marketing (Xie and Lee, 2015), brand attitude (Kostyra, Reiner, Natter &Klapper, 2016; Zablocki, Schlegelmilch& Houston, 2019), brand trust (Delgado, 2005; Awasthi & Mehta, 2022), and brand loyalty (Chinomona&Maziriri, 2017) on purchase intention (Hanna et al., 2011; Awasthi and Mehta, 2021) have been examined,there is a research gap regarding the effect of social media paradigm on Repurchase Intention. Of course, the importanceof brand attitude, brand loyalty, and brand trust should be taken into account when analysing the impact of the social media paradigm on the repurchase intention of brand by consumers.This study has also tested different mediation effects of attitude, loyalty, and trust of brand on repurchase intention.

 

Literature Review

Brand Attitude

Brand attitude is customers thinking and perceiving about the product, service and brand (Venter de Villiers et al., 2018). Brand attitude expresses the consumer's overall understanding of the brand to satisfy the needs, thus, attitude generates and communicates their connectivity with the brand. Three components are included in brand attitude namely affective (emotions that a consumer expresses towards a brand), behavioural (consumer attitude towards the brand), cognitive (evaluation of the various components and factors attached with the brand) (Ray et al., 2021).Purchase intention is strongly predicted by brand attitude. Companies adopting social media marketing to connect with customers in digital era, advertise and endorse their brands (Aula, 2010; Hanna et al., 2011). Analysing the relationship between brand attitude and the social media paradigm is very essential. The study suggests that brand attitude positively affects the consumer’s choice to repurchase brands.

 

Brand Loyalty

Brand loyalty is a fundamental dimension of positive relationship between consumers’ and brand as well as it provides positive additional contribution to the brand (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993; Awasthi et al., 2012). Repeated purchase and give preference to a particular brand is brand loyalty behavioural loyalty and cognitive loyalty respectively (Keller, 1993).Brand loyalty means consumer’s commitment, affinity, favourable, and biased attitude towards a particular brand (Putro& Haryanto, 2015). Today brand loyalty is not considered the intention behind the purchase of a specific brand but it more focuses on the quick purchasing intention of a specific brand(Othman et al., 2015).Strong brand loyalty provides word-of-mouth publicity, consumers are less price-sensitive, and initiators for new products. several benefits like (Lim et al., 2016). The previous studies purposed to analysing the association between the brand loyalty and purchase intention of branded products either they are purchasing from physical stores or online, but there are few studies are conducted on the impact of brand loyalty on repurchasing intention. Thus, this study proposes that brand loyalty positively affects the consumer’s decision to repurchase brands.

 

Brand Trust

Brand trust is the consumer's trust on a specific brand which includes honesty, consistency, competency, performance, and responsiveness as per consumers’ requirement and expectations (Delgado, 2005). Brand trust is customers’ willingness to faith on the brand to realize its stated commitment and promise (Awasthi and Mehta, 2022).Brand Trust is a successful relationship between two critical factors namely consumers and branded products. Due to lack of brand trust consumers hesitate to taking decision to purchase.

 

Social Media Paradigm

Social media provides digital platform for interacting, communicating, publishing, view the posting of others. Social media have different digital platforms which is based on, depending on usage, function, and objectives (Khan, 2017). Instagram is famous sharing photographs, ‘Facebook’ is best social media for connecting friends, family members, and relatives and sharing photos, videos, and stories, it’s helpful in building and maintaining social capital,whereas LinkedIn is providing a social networking platform for professionals to share their inter-industry and intra-industry functioning, progress, growth, thoughts, etc; Twitter is an appropriateplatform for neno-blogging by publishing and replying shortest posts (Dawley, 2007). Companies are maintaining social media to promote their products and services, connecting with consumers for reviews and feedback (Awasthi & Mehta, 2022).Companies are engaging professionals for developing the content for promoting the product and services (Xie& Lee, 2015), Other side users of the products are also blogging, posting, or commenting on social networking sites about their feelings and experience of the product. Positive responses enhance the intention of purchasing and repurchasing products and services.Social posted positive viral media easily influence consumers' purchase decisions and companies owned media was not much effective (Lee and Watkins, 2016). Social Communities are share their positive and negative experience on social media (Awasthi et al., 2012). Social media videos (reels) are more effective in engaging consumers/users as compared to photos and text (Kusumasondjaja, 2018).

 

Social Media Marketing is a digital web-based technology which is develop communication channels between companies and society. Digital technology has a strong impact on social communities and their behaviour; therefore, companies are interested in the social media interested domain (Zahoor and Qureshi, 2017). The benefits of social media marketing for companies are easily sharing knowledge, reducing advertisement costs, increasing profit margins, bridge the gap between consumers and companies (Neti, 2011). Social networking sites have positive relation between purchase intentions on both online shopping and shopping from physical stores (Awasthi & Mehta, 2020). social media marketing has a direct positive impact on brand loyalty (Erdogmus&Cicek, 2012; Awasthi & Mehta, 2022).

 

Repurchase Intention

Repurchase intention is intent of subsequent purchase of the same product due to satisfaction of consumers from the innovation, quality, price, services, and post-purchase services (Sharma and Lijuan, 2015). Satisfied consumers communicate favorable feedback and reviews to society, relatives and family members and repurchase the same products and services (Carlson &O’cass, 2010; Kassim& Abdullah, 2010). Encouraging and retaining of consumers’ purchasing behavior is depends on the past experience of a consumer, negative experience discourages the purchasing behaviour of the same products and services (Oliver, 2014). A strong relationship between satisfaction and purchase intention of the customers can predict the repurchase pattern and intentions (Kim, 2012). Highly satisfied consumers lead the high purchase intentions of specific products.

 

 

Research Methodology

The purpose of this research was to do an exhaustive evaluation of the impact of social media marketing tools on the consumers’ purchasing behaviour and to relate it with those factors that would ensure consumer loyalty. Also, an attempt was being made to evaluate in case brand loyalty as well as brand trust as well as brand attitude all put together were having any influence over consumer retention. This pilot study was held in 18 major metro and mini- metro towns with the help of a well-defined questionnaire that had the concurrence of experts of marketing.

 Any data that was not filled in completely by the respondents from the cities that were chosen for the study was out rightly rejected to ensure the correctness of results. At last, the researchers had 521 responses worth subjected to analysis. In order to the examination of demographic statistics and test the hypotheses, the researchers employed SPSS v.26.0. The idea was to not only comprehend thoroughly but to have invaluable perception into the characteristics of respondents of this study.

 

Research model

 

Research hypotheses

 

H1: Social media marketing affects Repurchase Intention positively.

H2: Social media marketing affects brand attitude positively.

H3: Social media marketing affects brand loyalty positively.

H4: Social media marketing affects brand trust positively.

H5: Brand attitude affects Repurchase Intention positively.

H6: Brand loyalty affects Repurchase Intention positively.

H7: Brand trust affects Repurchase Intention positively.

 

Results

 

Table 1 Respondents’ Demographic Distribution

Category

 

Frequency (N)

Percentage (%)

Gender

 

Male

352

67.56

 

Female

169

32.44

Age

 

18 – 35

52

9.98

 

36 – 55

279

53.55

 

Above 56

190

36.47

Education

 

 

 

 

Senior High School

52

9.98

 

Diploma

154

29.56

 

Bachelor

162

31.09

 

Masters

153

29.37

Job

 

 

 

 

Student

64

12.28

 

Private Employee

165

31.67

 

Government Employee

174

33.40

 

Professional

85

16.31

 

Self Employed / Businessman

33

6.33

Income

 

10000-25000

51

9.79

 

25001-50000

135

25.91

 

50001-75000

127

24.38

 

75001-100000

123

23.61

 

Above 100000

85

16.31

 

Respondent demographic Characteristic

There were 521 respondents were finally included for analysis purpose after data cleaning and validation from the eighteen metropolitan cities (name of cities) of India. The examination of data and testing hypothesized relationships by SPSS v26. The demographic profile of respondents includes gender, age, education, job, and income (INR per month) is shown in Table 1. In total, 67.56% (352) were male and 32.44% (169) were female; 53.55% (279) respondents were between the age 36 to 55 years; 60.65% (316) respondents were dominantly bachelor’s or master’s degree and 65.07% (339) respondents were employed in private or government sector; 64.30% (335) respondents were earning above 80,000 INR per month.

 

Table 2: Reliability and validity estimate

Factor and items

No. of Items

Cronbach's Alpha (a)

Composite Reliability (CR)

Average Variance Extracted (AVE)

Social Media Paradigms

5

0.852

0.910

0.772

Repurchase Intention

6

0.881

0.913

0.678

Brand Attitude

5

0.833

0.909

0.750

Brand Loyalty

4

0.845

0.912

0.821

Brand Trust

5

0.798

0.897

0.763

 

Reliability Analysis

The, recommended value of Cronbach’s alpha (a) is above the threshold value i.e. 0.70 (Nunnally, 1967) and the score of Cronbach’s alpha (a) of all five constructs of the study came between 0.798 and 0.881, which reflected satisfactory measures for basic research. The internal consistency for all five constructs (Social Media Paradigms, Repurchase Intention, Brand Attitude, Brand Loyalty, and Brand Trust) were excellent and all indicators were used for data collection. and Composite Reliability (CR) statistics of all five constructs were more than 0.5 and 0.80 respectively, postulates the appropriateness of internal consistency (Fornell& Larcker, 1981).

 

The Composite Reliability (CR) statistics of each construct were significantly above their respective statistics of Average Variance Extracted (AVE). Thus, all five constructs fulfill the reliability and validity (Hair et al., 2010). The results are portrayed in Table 2.

Table 3: Descriptive Statistics, correlations (r), and the square root of AVE

 

Mean

S.D

Social networking sites

Repurchase Intention

Brand Attitude

Brand Loyalty

Brand Trust

Social media paradigms

3.26

.516

0.879

 

 

 

 

Repurchase Intention

3.59

.693

0.609

0.823

 

 

 

Brand Attitude

3.78

.605

0.710

0.635

0.866

 

 

Brand Loyalty

3.38

.711

0.689

0.619

0.781

0.906

 

Brand Trust

3.17

.628

0.714

0.748

0.813

0.857

0.873

All correlations are significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

The square root of AVE for each construct is in diagonal.

 

Table 3 shows the descriptive statistics, coefficient of correlation, and the square root of AVE (Average Variance Extracted)shown as a bolded number in diagonal for all five constructs. The mean scores of constructs are more than the threshold score i.e. 3.00, the lowest mean score is 3.17 for brand trust and the highest score is 3.78 for brand attitude. The standard deviation in all five constructs lies between 0-1 is shows tolerable variability in the data set. It also indicates that there is a significant difference in the opinion of the respondents regarding the research variables. The coefficients of correlations between the constructs are above 0.6 as well as the square root of AVE values are significantly greater than the coefficient of correlation of corresponding constructs confirming discriminant validity and acceptable (Fornell& Larcker, 1981).

Figure 2: Testing Results

 

 

 

Table 4. Hypotheses testing results

 

Hypotheses

b

Value

Decision

Social media paradigms àRepurchase Intention

0.369

0.001

Supported

Social media paradigms à Brand Attitude

0.142

0.000

Supported

Social media paradigms à Brand Loyalty

0.213

0.000

Supported

Social media paradigms à Brand Trust

0.346

0.002

Supported

Brand Attitude àRepurchase Intention

0.215

0.000

Supported

Brand Loyalty àRepurchase Intention

0.356

0.000

Supported

Brand Trust àRepurchase Intention

0.294

0.000

Supported

 

Hypothesis testing results are shown in Table 4. All five hypotheses were supported at 5% level of significant. There is significant impact of social media paradigms on Repurchase Intention (b = 0.369, r = 0.001), brand attitude (b = 0.142, r = 0.000), brand loyalty (b = 0.213, r = 0.000), and brand trust (b = 0.346, r = 0.002), Brand attitude on Repurchase Intention (b = 0.215, r = 0.000), brand loyalty on Repurchase Intention (b = 0.215, r = 0.000), brand trust on Repurchase Intention (b = 0.294, r = 0.000). It shows that social media paradigms plays vital role in Repurchase Intention in digital era.

 

Hayes PROCESS Model (Hayes, 2018) was used to examine the parallel mediation effect of Brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand trust between social media paradigms and repurchase intention. To test the H8, H9 and H10, all preconditions were fulfilled (Baron & Kenny, 1986).

 

First, the predictor variable social media paradigms is significantly associated with the measured variable repurchase intention. Second, social media paradigms is significantly associated with the mediating variables brand attitude, brand loyalty, and brand trust respectively. Third, attitude, brand loyalty, and brand trust are significantly associated with repurchase intention; and fourth, when social media paradigms is also analysed. Thus, all the preconditions were fulfilled to check mediation analysis.

 

Table 5 indicates the mediation effects which support and contribute to the strength of the model. The total effect was significant, (b=0.294, r = 0.000). Most importantly, the relationship and the effect between social media paradigms and repurchase intention was strong in this analysis (b = 0.369 and r = 0.001) compared with the total effect (b=0.294, r = 0.000). These results indicate mediation. Moreover, the indirect effect of brand attitude (b = 0.242 , r = 0.000), brand loyalty (b = 0.213 , r = 0.000),  and brand trust (b = 0.346 , r = 0.002),  were positively significant mediation effect was obtained Accordingly, H8, H9 and H10 are accepted.

Table 5. Mediation testing results

Hypotheses

b

Value

Decision

Social media paradigms à Brand Attitude àRepurchase Intention

0.242

0.000

Supported

Social media paradigms à Brand Loyalty àRepurchase Intention

0.213

0.000

Supported

Social media paradigms à Brand Trust àRepurchase Intention

0.346

0.002

Supported

 

Discussion and Interpretation

The main focus of this study is to analysis the evolving new social media paradigms for sustainable Repurchase Intention: the mediating role of brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand trust. The analysis identifies all hypotheses were supported. The association between social media paradigms and repurchase intention expressed the strongest relationship (β=0.369, r = 0.001) that shows social media paradigms are influenced customers to repurchase branded products. social media paradigms involve in influencing consumers, communicating with customers, taking feedback and reviews, run schemes of branded products so consumers can easily influence, encourage, motivate and pursue repurchasing the branded products. Further, social networking and brand attitude motivates consumers to purchase and repurchase online branded products (Awasthi & Mehta, 2021).

The results that emerged from the study gave a clear-cut verdict that customers are profoundly under the influence of social media paradigms tactics and their decision to go for repurchase branded products largely relies on the same. It was also found out that social media paradigm platforms should always be dynamic and keep on updating the product information of branded products so as to remain in the limelight and keep on winning the trust of the customers. The social media must be abuzz with exquisite quality, long lasting nature and the sublime USPs to keep the interest of the customers intact for the retention. This is the recipe for sustainability in the volatile times for branded products.

 

The business firms need to be careful about the feedback and reviews of their products and cannot afford to let them be a lose end. What consumers feel about the products of the business firm is also useful to do effective marketing when the reviews/ comments/ opinions of customers are positive. This accomplishes the task of brand loyalty, brand trust and brand attitude.

 

Conclusion

Based on the study, social media paradigms are influencing consumers to repurchase branded products. Social media marketing and social networking sites make a bridge of communication between brands and consumers, using the bridge brand received feedback and reviews from consumers as well as communicates the schemes and offers of branded products. Social media paradigm motivates the consumer to repurchase the products. It shows the strong association between social media and the intention of customers to repurchase brands.

 

Further, brand attitude, brand loyalty, and brand trust have a positive effect on the repurchase intention of brand. social media paradigm has a positive significant effect on the brand attitude, brand loyalty, and brand trust on repurchase intention of brands. Positive feedbacks and reviews support brand attitude, brand trust and brand loyalty which leads repurchase intention whereas negative publicity, reviews, and feedbacks affect brand attitude, brand loyalty, and brand trust adversely. Consumer retention is led by fondness, satisfaction, services, quality, support, pleasing and favouring of branded products which shows a positive significant effect on repurchase intention. Overall, companies should keep vigilance on social media communication, feedback, and reviews of their products on social media. Negative communication or anti-branding of branded products on social networking sites affects the repurchase intention of consumers negatively. It is very essential and strategically manage the social media paradigm.

 

Limitations

The researchers recommend that such a study needs to be conducted on pan India basis to have a more cogent viewpoint about the results and recommendations of researchers. The reason: every major city is unique with differentiated lifestyles. The education, the culture, the living standard all changes as we move every 100 KMs in India. Thus, the generalization would be possible when extended research is conducted. Also, there are myriad reasons that may be impactful to influence customer loyalty and retention and all such factors must be incorporated to create a larger canvas of understanding Repurchase Intention strategies.

 


 

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