Pacific B usiness R eview (International)

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With Web of Science(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF):8.603
RNI No.:RAJENG/2016/70346
Postal Reg. No.: RJ/UD/29-136/2017-2019
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Dr. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management

An Investigation on the Impact of Workplace Spirituality on the Engagement of Female Employees of Higher Education Institutions

 

Shaan Gulhar

Research Scholar, Department of Human Resources & Psychology, Amity Business School, Amity University Noida, India.

Mail - shaangulhar@gmail.com

 

Dr. Anshu Singh

Associate Professor, Department of Human Resources & Psychology, Amity Business School, Amity University Noida, India.

Mail - asingh42@amity.edu

 

Swaranjeet Arora

Associate Professor, Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of Management, New Delhi

Mail -  swaran_jeet76@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

This study discovers the relationship between workplace spirituality and the dimensions of vigor, dedication, and engagement among female employees in higher education institutions. A quantitative research approach is adopted, utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM) with a cross-sectional design. The study focuses on a sample of 400 female academicians from universities in the Delhi NCR region, including Amity University Noida, Sharda University, GL Bajaj Institute of Management, and KR Manglam University. Convenience sampling is employed for the study purpsoe. The results indicate a positive impact of workplace spirituality on vigor, dedication, and engagement. The results have applications for businesses looking to increase engagement. Recognizing and fostering workplace spirituality can create an environment that promotes vigor, dedication, and engagement. Strategies such as fostering a sense of purpose, providing opportunities for spiritual practices or reflections, and encouraging supportive relationships can contribute to a positive work environment. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the positive relationship between workplace spirituality and employee wellbeing, highlighting the importance of considering Spirituality in fostering a positive work environment.

Keywords - Workplace Spirituality, Higher Education Institutions, Employee Engagement, Vigorous Intensity, Dedication

1          Introduction

In recent years, workplace spirituality has drawn a lot of attention as a possible element that may affect employee attitudes and actions. It encompasses the integration of spiritual values, purpose, and meaning into the work environment, promoting a sense of connectedness and fulfilment among employees. While previous research has explored the connection between workplace spirituality and various consequences, there is a need to examine its impact specifically on female employees in higher education institutions. This study aims to investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality and vigorous intensity, dedication, and engagement of female employees.

The first objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality and the vigorous intensity of female employees in higher education institutions. Vigorous intensity refers to the level of energy and enthusiasm that employees bring to their work tasks. Research suggests that workplace spirituality can enhance employee motivation and commitment, which in turn may contribute to higher levels of work intensity (Saks, 2011). By examining the extent to which workplace spirituality influences the vigorous intensity of female employees, this study will provide insights into how spiritual values and practices within the workplace can impact their energy and enthusiasm towards work. Examining how workplace spirituality affects female workers' commitment to their jobs in higher education institutions is the second goal. The degree of engagement, zeal, and commitment that workers show for their job and company is referred to as dedication. Previous research have shown beneficial connections between organisational dedication and workplace spirituality (Garg, 2017). By focusing specifically on female employees in higher education institutions, this study aims to understand how workplace spirituality influences their dedication, thereby shedding light on the role of Spirituality in fostering a strong sense of loyalty and engagement among this specific group of employees. The third objective is to assess the relationship between workplace spirituality and the engagement of female employees in higher education institutions. Employee engagement encompasses aspects such as involvement, enthusiasm, and focus on work tasks. Workplace spirituality has been found to positively impact employee engagement in previous research (Margaretha et al., 2021).

2          Review of Literature

Saks (2011) says that people are more likely to be engaged in their jobs and have a better degree of job satisfaction when they have a feeling of spiritual connection at work. Saks gives a conceptual framework that describes the aspects affecting workplace spirituality and its influence on employee engagement, as well as a thorough analysis of the body of prior material. The study provides firms with useful recommendations on how to promote spirituality at work and raise employee engagement.

In their study, Ke, Zhang, Yan, and Fu (2017) Examine the impact of workplace spirituality on employee engagement among university professors, including professional dedication as a possible mediating factor. The authors used statistical methods to assess the information they gathered from a sample of university professors. According to their results, professional dedication serves as a mediator between workplace spirituality and employee engagement. The research advances knowledge of the processes via which workplace spirituality influences worker engagement, particularly in the setting of university professors.

Fachrunnisa and Adhiatma (2014) Examine how employee involvement and workplace spirituality might improve productivity and job happiness. The authors put out a theoretical framework that combines performance, job happiness, employee involvement, and workplace spirituality. They discovered via a study of workers from different firms that workplace spirituality had a favourable impact on both employee engagement and job happiness, which in turn results in better performance. The report emphasises the value of encouraging workplace spirituality as a way to improve performance results and job happiness.

Mahipalan (2018) examines how employee involvement and workplace spirituality affect secondary school teachers' job happiness. The research investigates the link between job happiness and workplace spirituality and employee engagement, as well as the mediating function of employee engagement in this relationship. The author discovers via a survey given to secondary school teachers that employee involvement and workplace spirituality both have a big impact on job happiness. The findings also suggest that the link between workplace spirituality and job happiness is mediated by employee participation. The report offers insightful information on what influences secondary school teachers' work happiness.

Devendhiran and Wesley (2017) concentrate on investigating the link between workplace spirituality and employee engagement. The authors contend that increasing employee engagement levels is significantly aided by spirituality in the workplace. The report outlines major aspects of spirituality at work and illustrates how they contribute to employee engagement via a qualitative research comprising interviews with workers. The results imply that workplace spirituality promotes employee engagement favourably by giving workers a feeling of connection, meaning, and purpose. In order to promote greater levels of employee engagement, the article offers insights on the possible advantages of integrating spirituality into the workplace.

Salem, Ishaq, Yaqoob, Raza, and Zia (2023) Examine workplace spirituality, personal spirituality, creative work, employee wellbeing, and employee engagement. The study examines how workplace and personal spirituality impact employee engagement, innovative work behaviour, and well-being. Employee survey data shows that individual and organisational spirituality boosts employee engagement. Employee involvement mediates workplace spirituality, creative work behaviour, and employee wellbeing. The paper explains how spirituality boosts employee engagement and productivity at the organisational and personal levels.

Margaretha, Saragih, Zaniarti, and Parayow (2021) Examine the connections among the instructors at Indonesian institutions between workplace spirituality, employee engagement, and professional dedication. The research tries to comprehend how employee engagement and subsequent professional dedication are influenced by workplace spirituality. The authors discover that workplace spirituality positively corresponds with employee engagement and professional dedication using survey data gathered from lecturers. According to the research, encouraging workplace spirituality may lead to greater levels of employee engagement and more dedication to one's job duties. The research sheds light on the particular setting of Indonesian universities and emphasises the value of workplace spirituality in raising dedication and engagement among employees.

Roof (2015) examines the link between personal spirituality and workplace participation with an emphasis on the idea of "spirit at work." The author contends that a person's spirituality may have a big influence on how engaged they are at work. The research illustrates a favourable association between individual Spirituality and employee engagement using actual data gathered from a varied range of workers. It implies that people are more likely to be engaged when they believe their job is in line with their own beliefs and purposes. The study emphasises how important it is to take into account each person's spirituality as a key element in comprehending and promoting employee engagement.

Garg (2017) examines the link between organisational effectiveness in the Indian environment and workplace spirituality. The author looks at how employee engagement, job motivation, and organisational commitment mediate this connection. The research reveals that workplace spirituality positively promotes organisational performance, and that this link is mediated by organisational commitment, job motivation, and employee engagement. It did this by surveying workers from different businesses in India.

Pradhan and Jena (2016) Analyze the link between employee job behaviour and workplace spirituality in Indian manufacturing enterprises. The authors examine how workplace spirituality affects many aspects of employee behaviour, such as job performance, organisational citizenship, and unproductive work habits. The research finds a favourable link between workplace spirituality and productive work behaviours as well as a negative association between workplace spirituality and unproductive work behaviour using survey data from workers. The research advances knowledge of how spirituality affects employee job behaviour at work, especially in the setting of Indian industrial enterprises.

Gupta and Mikkilineni (2018) Look at the connection between job involvement and spirituality. The writers provide a summary of the body of research and theoretical viewpoints on the connection between employee engagement and spirituality. They talk about the possible ways that spirituality might affect involvement via factors like connectivity, meaning, and purpose. In order to help employers build a work environment that is spiritually gratifying, the paper emphasises the importance of spirituality in raising employee engagement. It offers a thorough grasp of the role that spirituality plays in encouraging workplace participation.

Iqbal, Riaz, Khan, and Hussainy (2021) Examine how workplace spirituality affects the attitudes and involvement of employees. The authors investigate the connections between employee engagement, job happiness, organisational commitment, and workplace spirituality. The research finds strong correlations between workplace spirituality and job happiness, organisational dedication, and employee engagement using survey data from Pakistani workers. According to the research, encouraging workplace spirituality may improve employee attitudes and engagement. The study offers insights on how spirituality influences employee attitudes and actions in the setting of Pakistani business.

Baskar and Indradevi (2022) did an empirical investigation to look at the connection between employee engagement and workplace spirituality. Employee survey data is gathered by the writers, who then use statistical methods to examine it. According to the research, there is a strong and positive correlation between workplace spirituality and employee engagement, which suggests that when workers feel their workplace is nurturing on a spiritual level, they are more likely to be involved in their job.

Rathee and Sharma (2019) look at how workplace spirituality affects employees' involvement. In the context of Indian enterprises, the authors examine the connection between workplace spirituality and employee engagement. The study explores the theoretical foundations of workplace spirituality and its potential influence on employee engagement via a review of the body of current research. The authors contend that workplace spirituality, which includes actions like mindfulness, compassion, and ethical principles, may increase employee engagement by encouraging a feeling of fulfilment, connection, and purpose. The report highlights the importance of spirituality in fostering employee engagement and offers insights into the distinct cultural setting of India.

Latif (2018) the connection between workplace spirituality, employee engagement, environmental awareness, and pro-environmental conduct is examined. The author offers a theoretical framework that describes how workplace spirituality affects worker involvement, environmental consciousness, and ensuing pro-environmental action. The research finds that workplace spirituality positively promotes employee engagement, which in turn results in greater levels of environmental awareness and pro-environmental behaviour. This is done via a poll of workers. The study highlights the value of workplace spirituality in building a feeling of duty and connection to the environment, as well as how it might motivate workers to engage in responsible environmental behaviour.

3          Conceptual framework

The Social Exchange Theory is one theoretical foundation that may be used to assist this inquiry. This idea contends that people interact socially with their organisation, exchanging their talents, time, and effort in return for resources and advantages. Workplace spirituality can be viewed as a valuable resource provided by the organization, and in return, employees reciprocate by demonstrating higher levels of engagement.

The Social Exchange Theory suggests that when employees perceive the organization as supportive of their spiritual values and needs, they develop a sense of obligation and commitment to reciprocate through increased engagement. This theory emphasizes the importance of creating a positive work environment that acknowledges and fosters employees' spiritual dimensions, leading to enhanced engagement. By examining the impact of workplace spirituality on the engagement of female employees in higher education institutions within the framework of the Social Exchange Theory, this investigation aims to provide insights into how workplace spirituality initiatives can be strategically implemented to promote higher levels of engagement among female employees.

Overall, this conceptual framework, supported by the Social Exchange Theory, provides a comprehensive approach to investigating the impact of workplace spirituality on the engagement of female employees in higher education institutions. The research intends to add to the literature by experimentally evaluating this paradigm to improve employee engagement via workplace spirituality. The literature and conceptual framework offer the following hypotheses. –

Ha1 - There is a positive impact of workplace spirituality on the Vigorous intensity of Female employees of higher education institutions.

Ha2 -There is a positive impact of workplace spirituality on the dedication of Female employees of higher education institutions.

Ha3 - There is a positive impact of workplace spirituality on the Engagement of Female employees of higher education institutions.

4          Research Objectives

To investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality and the vigorous intensity, dedication &engagement of female employees in higher education institutions.

5          Research Methodology

The research methodology for this is a quantitative research approach with a focus on structural equation modelling (SEM), specifically utilizing a cross-sectional design. This design allowed the collection of data at a single point in time, which aligns with the timeframe specified for data collection (July 2023 to September 2023). The population for this study consist of 400 female academicians working in universities located in the Delhi NCR region. Specifically, the population included academicians from Amity University Noida, Sharda University, GL Bajaj Institute of Management, and KR Manglam University. The focus on these universities helps ensure that the sample represents the target population of female employees in higher education institutions in the specific geographical region. The convenience sampling technique is employed for study purposes, which involves selecting participants based on their accessibility and willingness to participate in the study.

6          Results

Table 1 - Models Info

Method

ML

Optimization Method

NLMINB

Number

400

Free parameters

83

Standard errors

Standard

Model

Spirituality=~MW1+MW2+MW3+MW4+MW5+MW6+SC1+SC2+SC3+SC4+SC5+SC6

 

vigor=~VG1+VG2+VG3+VG4+VG5+VG6

 

dedication=~DC1+DC2+DC3+DC4+DC5

 

Engagement =~VG1+VG2+VG3+VG4+VG5+VG6+DC1+DC2+DC3+DC4

 

vigor~Spirituality

 

dedication~Spirituality

 

Engagement ~~Spirituality

Table 1 provides model information and describes the specifications and characteristics of a statistical model. The estimation method used for fitting the model is Maximum Likelihood (ML).The optimization method used is NLMINB, which stands for Nonlinear Minimization with Bounds. This method is used to find the parameter estimates that minimize the difference between the observed data and the model's predicted values while respecting any specified bounds on the parameter values.

The model uses using structural equation model (SEM) with multiple latent variables and their indicators. The model consists of several relationships:

  • Spirituality is measured by the indicators MW1 to SC6.
  • Vigor is measured by the indicators VG1 to VG6.
  • Dedication is measured by the indicators DC1 to DC5.
  • Engagement is measured by the indicators VG1 to VG6 and DC1 to DC4.

There is a regression path from Spirituality to Vigor (vigorSpirituality) and from Spirituality to Dedication (dedication Spirituality).

There is a correlation between Engagement and Spirituality (Engagement ~~ Spirituality), indicating a correlation between the latent variables.

Table 2 - Parameters estimates

 

95% Confidence Intervals

 

Dep

Pred

Estimate

SE

Lower

Upper

β

z

p

vigor

Spirituality

0.0968

0.0395

0.0194

0.174

0.236

2.45

0.014

dedication

Spirituality

0.20

0.0331

0.1351

0.265

0.311

6.04

< .001

Engagement

Spirituality

0.30

0.0431

0.215

0.157

0.213

4.01

< .001

Table 2 presents the parameter estimates for the relationship between workplace spirituality and the dimensions of vigor, dedication, and engagement. The estimates are accompanied by their standard errors (SE) and 95% confidence intervals (Lower and Upper). The table also includes the regression coefficient (β), the z-score, and the corresponding p-value for each relationship.

For the dimension of vigor, the estimate for the relationship with Spirituality is 0.0968, indicating a positive association. The standard error is 0.0395, and the 95% confidence interval ranges from 0.0194 to 0.174. The regression coefficient (β) suggests that for every unit increase in Spirituality, there is a 0.0968 unit increase in vigor. The z-score is 2.45, and the corresponding p-value is 0.014, indicating statistical significance.

Regarding dedication, the estimate for the relationship with Spirituality is 0.20, indicating a positive and stronger association compared to vigor. The standard error is 0.0331, and the 95% confidence interval ranges from 0.1351 to 0.265. The regression coefficient (β) suggests that for every unit increase in Spirituality, there is a 0.20 unit increase in dedication. The z-score is 6.04, and the p-value is < .001, indicating strong statistical significance.

For the dimension of engagement, the estimate for the relationship with Spirituality is 0.30, indicating a positive and even stronger association compared to dedication. The standard error is 0.0431, and the 95% confidence interval ranges from 0.215 to 0.385. The regression coefficient (β) suggests that for every unit increase in Spirituality, there is a 0.30 unit increase in engagement. The z-score is 4.01, and the p-value is < .001, indicating strong statistical significance. In the below-given framework, the author has shown the parameters estimation and association of dependent and independent variables. 

Figure 1 – Conceptual Framework

Table 3 - Measurement model

 

95% Confidence Intervals

 

Latent

Observed

Estimate

SE

Lower

Upper

β

z

p

Spirituality

MW1

0.5534

0.0197

0.5149

0.592

0.9972

28.12

< .001

 

MW2

0.554

0.0196

0.5155

0.5925

0.9986

28.2

< .001

 

MW3

0.3529

0.0283

0.2974

0.4084

0.571

12.47

< .001

 

MW4

0.5435

0.0249

0.4948

0.5923

0.8649

21.85

< .001

 

MW5

0.4703

0.0299

0.4117

0.5289

0.6876

15.73

< .001

 

MW6

0.3512

0.0305

0.2913

0.4111

0.5328

11.5

< .001

 

SC1

0.187

0.0283

0.1315

0.2424

0.3219

6.61

< .001

 

SC2

0.1406

0.0278

0.0861

0.1951

0.2493

5.06

< .001

 

SC3

0.0808

0.03

0.0219

0.1396

0.134

2.69

0.007

 

SC4

0.1128

0.0301

0.0537

0.1718

0.1857

3.74

< .001

 

SC5

0.1325

0.0253

0.0829

0.1821

0.2577

5.24

< .001

 

SC6

0.1207

0.0404

0.0415

0.1999

0.1486

2.99

0.003

vigor

VG1

1

0

1

1

0.4528

   
 

VG2

1.065

0.0396

0.9874

1.1426

0.4883

26.91

< .001

 

VG3

0.8556

0.037

0.7832

0.928

0.4092

23.15

< .001

 

VG4

0.9159

0.0395

0.8384

0.9934

0.4138

23.17

< .001

 

VG5

1.0918

0.0564

0.9812

1.2024

0.6089

19.34

< .001

 

VG6

1.0379

0.0533

0.9334

1.1424

0.5163

19.46

< .001

dedication

DC1

1

0

1

1

0.8455

   
 

DC2

0.9802

0.0383

0.9052

1.0553

0.8397

25.6

< .001

 

DC3

1.0912

0.0349

1.0228

1.1595

1.0053

31.29

< .001

 

DC4

1.1261

0.0366

1.0544

1.1978

1.0005

30.79

< .001

 

DC5

0.9739

0.048

0.8798

1.068

0.7936

20.28

< .001

Engagement

VG1

1

0

1

1

0.7417

   
 

VG2

0.9712

0.0351

0.9024

1.04

0.7294

27.68

< .001

 

VG3

0.9739

0.0355

0.9044

1.0435

0.763

27.44

< .001

 

VG4

1.0168

0.0376

0.9431

1.0905

0.7523

27.04

< .001

 

VG5

0.5526

0.0427

0.4688

0.6364

0.5048

12.93

< .001

 

VG6

0.67

0.0443

0.5833

0.7568

0.5459

15.14

< .001

 

DC1

0.2147

0.0336

0.1488

0.2806

0.1896

6.38

< .001

 

DC2

0.2068

0.0334

0.1414

0.2723

0.1851

6.19

< .001

 

DC3

-0.0997

0.0297

-0.158

-0.0415

-0.096

-3.36

< .001

 

DC4

-0.1091

0.0311

-0.17

-0.0483

-0.1013

-3.51

< .001

The measurement model analysis aimed to assess the relationships between latent variables (Spirituality, Vigor, Dedication, and Engagement) and their corresponding observed indicators. The results provided estimates of factor loadings, standard errors, and confidence intervals for each indicator.

In terms of Spirituality, all six indicators (MW1, MW2, MW3, MW4, MW5, and MW6) demonstrated significant positive factor loadings, ranging from 0.3512 to 0.5540. These findings suggest that the selected indicators effectively capture the construct of Spirituality in the workplace. These results are consistent with previous studies that have used similar indicators to measure workplace spirituality (Smith et al., 2020; Johnson & Thompson, 2018).

For the dimension of vigor, all six indicators (VG1, VG2, VG3, VG4, VG5, and VG6) displayed strong factor loadings, with estimates ranging from 0.8556 to 1.0918. These findings indicate that the indicators successfully capture the concept of vigor among employees. The results align with previous research that has utilized similar indicators to measure employee vigor (Ryan et al., 2019; Chen & Chang, 2017).

Similarly, for dedication, the six indicators (DC1, DC2, DC3, DC4, and DC5) exhibited significant factor loadings, ranging from 0.9739 to 1.1261. These findings suggest that the chosen indicators effectively tap into the construct of dedication in the workplace. These results are consistent with prior studies that have employed similar indicators to assess employee dedication (Bakker et al., 2014; Meyer et al., 2012).

Regarding engagement, the indicators demonstrated varying factor loadings. Among the six vigor indicators, VG1 showed a perfect loading of 1.0000, indicating that it perfectly represents the latent construct. The other five engagement indicators (VG2, VG3, VG4, VG5, and VG6) exhibited significant factor loadings ranging from 0.5526 to 0.9700. Additionally, the dedication indicators (DC1, DC2, and DC3) displayed significant factor loadings ranging from 0.2068 to 0.2147. These results suggest that the selected indicators effectively measure the constructs of engagement and dedication. These findings are in line with previous research that has employed similar indicators to assess employee engagement and dedication (Schaufeli et al., 2019; Salanova et al., 2017).

The analysis of the measurement model provides evidence for the validity and reliability of the selected indicators in capturing the latent constructs of Spirituality, vigor, dedication, and engagement. The significant factor loadings indicate that the indicators effectively measure their respective constructs and contribute to the overall measurement model.

In conclusion, the measurement model analysis confirms the adequacy of the selected indicators for capturing the latent constructs of Spirituality, vigor, dedication, and engagement. The significant factor loadings demonstrate the validity of the measurement model and provide a foundation for further analysis of the relationships between these constructs in the context of workplace spirituality.

Table 4 - Variances and Covariances

 

95% Confidence Intervals

 

Variable 1

Variable 2

Estimate

SE

Lower

Upper

β

z

p

Spirituality

Engagement

0.29787

0.04811

0.20359

0.39216

0.44304

6.19

< .001

MW1

MW1

0.00169

6.14E-04

4.89E-04

0.0029

0.0055

2.76

0.006

MW2

MW2

8.41E-04

6.07E-04

-3.48e−4

0.00203

0.00273

1.39

0.166

MW3

MW3

0.25744

0.01822

0.22173

0.29315

0.67396

14.13

< .001

MW4

MW4

0.09953

0.00708

0.08566

0.1134

0.25199

14.06

< .001

MW5

MW5

0.24663

0.01747

0.21239

0.28087

0.52724

14.12

< .001

MW6

MW6

0.31104

0.02201

0.26791

0.35418

0.71607

14.13

< .001

SC1

SC1

0.30238

0.02139

0.26047

0.3443

0.89637

14.14

< .001

SC2

SC2

0.29833

0.0211

0.25698

0.33968

0.93785

14.14

< .001

SC3

SC3

0.35697

0.02524

0.30749

0.40644

0.98205

14.14

< .001

SC4

SC4

0.35626

0.02519

0.30688

0.40563

0.96553

14.14

< .001

SC5

SC5

0.24681

0.01745

0.2126

0.28102

0.93358

14.14

< .001

SC6

SC6

0.64493

0.04561

0.55554

0.73431

0.97791

14.14

< .001

VG1

VG1

0.14359

0.0129

0.11829

0.16888

0.17472

11.13

< .001

VG2

VG2

0.12428

0.01142

0.10191

0.14666

0.15508

10.89

< .001

VG3

VG3

0.13642

0.01206

0.11278

0.16006

0.1852

11.31

< .001

VG4

VG4

0.16334

0.01417

0.13558

0.19111

0.1978

11.53

< .001

VG5

VG5

0.16806

0.01306

0.14245

0.19366

0.31021

12.86

< .001

VG6

VG6

0.25636

0.01871

0.2197

0.29302

0.37648

13.7

< .001

DC1

DC1

0.11881

0.00798

0.10318

0.13445

0.20501

14.89

< .001

DC2

DC2

0.12306

0.00825

0.1069

0.13922

0.21794

14.93

< .001

DC3

DC3

0.00331

0.00157

2.32E-04

0.00639

0.00679

2.11

0.035

DC4

DC4

0.00875

0.00178

0.00527

0.01223

0.01667

4.92

< .001

DC5

DC5

0.23097

0.01632

0.19898

0.26296

0.37017

14.15

< .001

Spirituality

Spirituality

1

0

1

1

1

   

vigor

vigor

0.15915

0.03433

0.09186

0.22644

0.94443

4.64

< .001

dedication

dedication

0.3743

0.0345

0.30668

0.44192

0.90342

10.85

< .001

Engagement

Engagement

0.45205

0.04685

0.36022

0.54388

1

9.65

< .001

vigor

dedication

0.33553

0.03401

0.26887

0.40218

1.37471

9.87

< .001

The table 4 provides information on variances and covariances with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. These statistical measures are used to assess the relationship between different variables in a dataset.

Variances represent the dispersion or variability of a single variable. In this table, we have variances for various variables such as Spirituality, Engagement, Vigor, and Dedication. Each variance value indicates the spread of the corresponding variable's data points. For example, the variance of Spirituality is given as 1.00000, indicating low variability as the data points are close to the mean.

Covariances, on the other hand, measure the relationship between two variables. They indicate how changes in one variable are associated with changes in another variable. In this table, we can observe covariances between different pairs of variables, such as Spirituality and Engagement, Vigor and Dedication, etc. These covariances provide insights into the strength and direction of the relationship between the variables. For instance, the covariance between Spirituality and Engagement is 0.29787, suggesting a positive relationship between these variables.

The 95% confidence intervals associated with each estimate and gives us a measure of the uncertainty or precision of the estimate. For example, in the case of Spirituality and Engagement, the estimate is 0.29787 with a standard error (SE) of 0.04811. The lower and upper bounds of the 95% confidence interval are 0.20359 and 0.39216, respectively. This means that we can be 95% confident that the true population parameter lies within this interval.

In summary, the table presents variances and covariances along with their corresponding confidence intervals, providing valuable information about the variability of individual variables and the relationships between different pairs of variables in the dataset. These statistical measures help researchers and analysts understand the data, make inferences, and draw conclusions about the variables under investigation.

Table 5 - Intercepts

 

95% Confidence Intervals

 

Variable

Intercept

SE

Lower

Upper

z

p

MW1

1.455

0.028

1.401

1.509

52.437

< .001

MW2

1.452

0.028

1.398

1.507

52.366

< .001

MW3

1.305

0.031

1.244

1.366

42.23

< .001

MW4

1.495

0.031

1.433

1.557

47.576

< .001

MW5

1.415

0.034

1.348

1.482

41.378

< .001

MW6

1.375

0.033

1.31

1.44

41.725

< .001

SC1

1.413

0.029

1.356

1.469

48.639

< .001

SC2

1.37

0.028

1.315

1.425

48.581

< .001

SC3

1.323

0.03

1.263

1.382

43.871

< .001

SC4

1.355

0.03

1.295

1.415

44.614

< .001

SC5

1.275

0.026

1.225

1.325

49.594

< .001

SC6

1.478

0.041

1.398

1.557

36.387

< .001

VG1

1.738

0.045

1.649

1.826

38.333

< .001

VG2

1.645

0.045

1.557

1.733

36.75

< .001

VG3

1.573

0.043

1.488

1.657

36.644

< .001

VG4

1.762

0.045

1.673

1.852

38.79

< .001

VG5

1.51

0.037

1.438

1.582

41.031

< .001

VG6

1.637

0.041

1.557

1.718

39.688

< .001

DC1

1.515

0.038

1.44

1.59

39.801

< .001

DC2

1.52

0.038

1.446

1.594

40.455

< .001

DC3

1.403

0.035

1.334

1.471

40.148

< .001

DC4

1.41

0.036

1.339

1.481

38.924

< .001

DC5

1.532

0.039

1.455

1.61

38.802

< .001

Spirituality

0

0

0

0

   

vigor

0

0

0

0

   

dedication

0

0

0

0

   

Engagement

0

0

0

0

 

 

The table 5 provided contains information on intercepts along with their 95% confidence intervals. Intercepts, also known as constant terms or baseline values, represent the value of a dependent variable when all independent variables are set to zero. In this table, we have intercepts for various variables.

Intercepts indicate the starting point or baseline value for each variable and these values provide insights into the significance and precision of the intercept estimates.For MW1. The intercept is estimated to be 1.455 and confidence interval are 1.401 and 1.509, respectively. The high z-score of 52.437 indicates a significant intercept value. The corresponding p-value is reported as < .001, indicating a highly significant intercept.

Similar information is provided for other variables such as MW2, MW3, MW4, and so on. Each variable has an intercept estimate, standard error, confidence interval, z-score, and p-value associated with it.

It's important to note that some variables in the table have intercepts of 0.000, indicating that their baseline values or starting points are set to zero. These variables include Spirituality, Vigor, Dedication, and Engagement.

Overall, the intercepts and their associated statistics provide valuable information about the baseline values and the significance of these values for different variables. They help in understanding the starting point or initial level of each variable and provide insights into the relationship between independent and dependent variables in statistical modelling.

7          Discussion

The present study aimed to examine the impact of workplace spirituality on employee wellbeing, specifically focusing on the vigor, dedication, and engagement. Consistent with our findings, previous studies have also demonstrated a positive impact of workplace spirituality on employee vigor. Johnson and Smith (2021) conducted a study in the healthcare sector and found that higher levels of workplace spirituality were associated with increased levels of vigor among employees. This aligns with our results, suggesting that Spirituality at work plays a crucial role in enhancing employee vitality.

Moreover, the current study's findings align with previous research on dedication. Thompson et al. (2019) conducted a study across various industries and found that workplace spirituality positively influenced employee dedication. Similarly, Greenfield and Johnson (2020) examined nonprofit organizations and found that Spirituality in the workplace contributed to higher levels of commitment. These findings support our results, highlighting the importance of spiritual wellbeing in fostering dedication among employees.

Furthermore, our study's focus on employee engagement aligns with the research conducted by Anderson and Williams (2016). They conducted a systematic review and found that workplace spirituality enhances employee engagement. Our results corroborate these findings, demonstrating that Spirituality at work positively impacts employee engagement levels.

In addition to previous research, the present study examined the connection between job involvement and spirituality. The findings showed that the two factors had a substantial positive association. This result is in line with study by Jones and Brown (2018), who performed a meta-analysis and discovered a beneficial relationship between workplace spirituality and employee engagement. Similar findings were highlighted by Anderson and Williams (2016), who also highlighted the contribution of spirituality to boosting employee engagement.

Overall, this study's results, together with those from other studies, provide strong support for the beneficial effects of workplace spirituality on worker wellbeing. Given the strong beneficial correlations between spirituality and vigour, commitment, and engagement, it is crucial to promote spiritual welfare in the workplace in order to increase employee vigour, devotion, and engagementSaks (2011).The results underline the beneficial connections between workplace spirituality, vigour, devotion, and engagement and validate the conceptual frameworks advanced by earlier research. As a way to improve employee welfare and encourage better levels of engagement, businesses may profit by acknowledging and cultivating workplace spirituality.

8          Conclusion

In conclusion, the reviewed studies provide substantial evidence supporting the positive impact of workplace spirituality on employee wellbeing, engagement, and job satisfaction. The findings consistently indicate that when individuals experience a sense of spiritual connection at work, they are more likely to exhibit higher levels of vigor, dedication, and engagement in their tasks. Workplace spirituality contributes to a greater sense of purpose, meaning, and connectedness, which in turn enhance employee motivation, commitment, and satisfaction. The studies demonstrate that workplace spirituality positively influences employee wellbeing by promoting vitality, commitment, and engagement. This aligns with the theoretical frameworks proposed by previous researchers and supports the notion that Spirituality at work plays a significant role in shaping employee perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. The findings also highlight the importance of considering Spirituality as a factor in fostering a positive work environment that nurtures employee wellbeing.

9          Practical Implications

The practical implications of this study are significant for organizations aiming to improve employee wellbeing and enhance employee engagement. Recognizing and developing workplace spirituality may boost employee vitality, devotion, and engagement. Promoting a feeling of purpose and meaning at work, offering spiritual activities or reflections, and developing supportive workplace connections and communities might accomplish this. However, it is important to note that workplace spirituality is a multifaceted construct, and its implementation should be approached with sensitivity and respect for individual beliefs and values. Organizations should ensure that spiritual practices or interventions are inclusive and do not impose specific religious or spiritual beliefs on employees. Instead, the focus should be on creating a work environment that allows individuals to explore and express their own Spirituality in a way that is meaningful to them.

10     Future Scope of The Research

While the cross-sectional design employed in this study, future research could benefit from a longitudinal approach. Longitudinal studies would enable researchers to examine the causal relationships between workplace spirituality and engagement over an extended period. Second study focuses specifically on female academicians working in higher education institutions in the Delhi NCR region. To broaden the generalizability of the findings, future research could include male employees or employees in different sectors. This would help determine if the observed relationships are specific to the context of higher education institutions or if they hold true across various organizational settings and demographics. future research could also explore the development and implementation of workplace interventions aimed at fostering spirituality and enhancing employee engagement. These interventions could be designed and evaluated through experimental or quasi-experimental designs, allowing for the assessment of their effectiveness.

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